Список языков программирования
От: neiroman Украина  
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1. ABC ALGOL — An extension of ALGOL 60 with arbitrary data structures and
2. ABCL/1 — An Object-Based Concurrent Language. Yonezawa, U Tokyo 1986.
3. ABCL/c+ — Concurrent object-oriented language, an extension of ABCL/1 based
4. ABCL/R — Yonezawa, Tokyo Inst Tech 1988. A reflective subset of ABCL/1,
5. ABCL/R2 — Yonezawa et al, Tokyo Inst Tech 1992. A reflective concurrent
6. Abel — HP Labs. Strongly-typed object-oriented language with contravariant
7. ABLE — Simple language for accountants. "ABLE, The Accounting Language,
8. ABSET — U Aberdeen. Early declarative language. "ABSET: A Programming
9. ABSYS 1 — U Aberdeen. Early declarative language, anticipated a number of
10. Accent — Very high level interpreted language with strings, tables, etc.
11. Access — English-like query language used in the Pick OS.
12. ACL — A Coroutine Language. A Pascal-based implementation of coroutines.
13. ACOM — Early system on IBM 705. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
14. ACOS — BBS language for PRODOS 8 on Apple ][. Macos is a hacked version of
15. ACP — Algebra of Communicating Processes. "Algebra of Communicating
16. ACT++ — Concurrent extension of C++ based on actors. "ACT++: Building a
17. ACT ONE — Specification language. "An Algebraic Specification Language
18. Act1 — An actor language, descendant of Plasma. "Concurrent Object
19. Act2 — An actor language. "Issues in the Design of Act2", D. Theriault,
20. Act3 — High-level actor language, descendant of Act2. Provides support for
21. Actalk — Briot, 1989. Smalltalk-based actor language. "Actalk: A Testbed
22. Active Language I — Early interactive math, for XDS 930 at UC Berkeley.
23. Actor — Charles Duff, Whitewater Group, ca 1986. Object-oriented language
24. Actors — C. Hewitt. A model for concurrency. "Laws for Communicating
25. Actra — An exemplar-based Smalltalk. LaLonde et al, OOPSLA '86.
26. Actus — Pascal with parallel extensions, similar to the earlier Glypnir.
27. Ada — (named for Ada Lovelace (1811-1852), arguably the world's first
28. Ada-83 — The original Ada, as opposed to Ada 9X.
29. Ada 9X — Revision and extension of Ada begun in 1988, currently under
30. Ada++ — Object-oriented extension to Ada, implemented as an Ada
31. Ada' — ORA. Subset of Ada used by the Penelope verification system. Omits
32. ADAM — A DAta Management system.
33. Ada-O — U Karlsruhe, 1979. Ada subset used for compiler bootstrapping.
34. Adaplex — An extension of Ada for functional databases. "Adaplex:
35. ADAPT — Subset of APT. Sammet 1969, p.606.
36. AdaTran — Name given informally to an Ada subset and coding style
37. ADD 1 TO COBOL GIVING COBOL — Bruce Clement. Tongue-in-cheek suggestion
38. ADELE — Language for specification of attribute grammars, used by the MUG2
39. ADES — Early system on IBM 704. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
40. ADL —
41. AdLog — Adds a Prolog layer to Ada. "AdLog, An Ada Components Set to Add
42. ADM — Picture query language, extension of Sequel2. "An Image-Oriented
43. ADS — Expert system.
44. ADVSYS — David Betz, 1986. An adventure language, object-oriented and
45. AE — Application Executive. Brian Bliss An
46. AED — Automated Engineering Design (aka ALGOL Extended for Design). MIT
47. Aeolus — Concurrent language with atomic transactions. "Rationale for the
48. AESOP — An Evolutionary System for On-line Programming. Early interactive
49. AFAC — Early system on IBM 704. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
50. AGORA — Distributed object-oriented language.[?]
51. AHDL — Analog VHDL. US Air Force, under development. Mentioned in
52. AHPL — A Hardware Programming Language. Hill & Peterson. A register-level
53. AID — Algebraic Interpretive Dialogue. Version of Joss II for the PDP-10.
54. AIDA —
55. AIMACO — AIr MAterial COmmand compiler. Modification of FLOW-MATIC.
56. AGP-L — Language for natural language recognition. [?]
57. AKCL — Austin Kyoto Common LISP. Wm Schelter , U
58. AKL — Andorra Kernel Language. Successor of KAP. "Programming Paradigms
59. AL — Assembly Language. Stanford U, 1970's. Language for industrial
60. ALADIN —
61. ALAM — Atlas LISP Algebraic Manipulation. Symbolic math, especially for
62. A-language. An early Algol-like surface syntax for Lisp. "An Auxiliary
63. ALC — Assembly Language Compiler. Alternative name for IBM 360 assembly
64. Alcool-90 — An object-oriented extension of ML with runtime overloading and
65. ALCOR — Subset of ALGOL. Sammet 1969, p.180.
66. Aldat — Database language, based on extended algebra. Listed by M.P.
67. ALDES — ALgorithm DEScription. "The Algorithm Description Language ALDES",
68. ALDiSP — Applicative Language for Digital Signal Processing. 1989, TU
69. ALEC — A Language with an Extensible Compiler. Implemented using RCC on an
70. ALEF — Concurrent language for systems programming. C-like syntax, but a
71. ALEPH —
72. Alex —
73. Alexis — Alex Input Specification. Input language for the scanner
74. ALF — Algebraic Logic Functional language. WAM-based language with
75. Alfl — Paul Hudak , Yale 1983. Functional, weakly
76. ALGEBRAIC — Early system on MIT's Whirlwind. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May
77. ALGOL 58 — See IAL.
78. ALGOL 60 — ALGOrithmic Language. Designed as a portable language for
79. ALGOL 60 Modified — "A Supplement to the ALGOL 60 Revised Report", R.M.
80. ALGOL 60 Revised — Still lacked standard I/O. "Revised Report on the
81. ALGOL 68 — Adriaan van Wijngaarden et al. Discussed from 1963 by Working
82. ALGOL 68-R — April, 1970. Royal Signals and Radar Establishment, Malvern,
83. ALGOL 68 Revised — Significantly simplified the language. "Revised Report
84. ALGOL 68C — S. Bourne and Mike Guy, Cambridge U 1975. Variant of ALGOL 68,
85. ALGOL 68RS — Royal Signals and Radar Establishment, Malvern UK. An
86. ALGOL 68S — A subset of ALGOL 68 allowing simpler compilation. Intended
87. ALGOL C — Clive Feather, Cambridge U, ca. 1981. Variant of ALGOL 60; added
88. ALGOL D — "A Proposal for Definitions in ALGOL", B.A. Galler et al, CACM
89. ALGOL N — Yoneda. Proposed successor to ALGOL 60.
90. ALGOL W — Derivative of ALGOL 60. Introduced double precision, complex
91. ALGOL X — Proposed successor to ALGOL 60, a "short-term solution to
92. ALGOL Y — Proposed successor to ALGOL 60, a "radical reconstruction".
93. ALGY — Early language for symbolic math. Sammet 1969, p.520.
94. ALIAS — ALgorIthmic ASsembly language. Machine oriented language, a
95. ALJABR — An implementation of MACSYMA for the Mac. Fort Pond Research.
96. ALLOY — Combines functional, object-oriented and logic programming ideas,
97. ALM — Assembly Language for Multics. Language on the GE645. Critical
98. ALP — List-processing extension of Mercury Autocode. "ALP, An Autocode
99. ALPAK — Subroutine package used by ALTRAN. "The ALPAK System for
100. ALPHA — A.P. Ershov, Novosibirsk, 1961. Also known as "Input". Extension
101. Alphard — (named for the brightest star in Hydra). Wulf, Shaw and London,
102. ALPS —
103. ALTAC — An extended FORTRAN II for Philco 2000, built on TAC. Sammet 1969,
104. ALTRAN — W.S. Brown, Bell Labs, ca. 1968. A FORTRAN extension for rational
105. Amber —
106. AMBIT — Algebraic Manipulation by Identity Translation (also claimed:
107. AMBIT/G — (G for graphs). "An Example of the Manipulation of Directed
108. AMBIT/L — (L for lists). List handling, allows pattern matching rules
109. AMBIT/S — (S for strings).
110. AMBUSH — Language for linear programming problems in a materials-
111. AML — IBM, 1980's. High-level language for industrial robots. "AML: A
112. AML/E — AML Entry. Simple version of AML, implemented on PC, with graphic
113. AMP — Algebraic Manipulation Package. Symbolic math, written in Modula-2,
114. AMPL — "AMPL: Design, Implementation and Evaluation of a Multiprocessing
115. AMPLE — Hybrid Technologies, Cambridge England, mid 80's. FORTH-like
116. AMPPL-II — Associative Memory Parallel Processing Language. Early 70's.
117. AMTRAN — Automatic Mathematical TRANslation. NASA Huntsville, 1966. For
118. ANCP — Early system on Datatron 200 series. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May
119. ANDF — Architecture Neutral Distribution Format. OSF's request for a
120. Andorra-I — The OR parallelism of Aurora plus the AND parallelism of
121. Andorra-Prolog — "Andorra-Prolog: An Integration of Prolog and Committed
122. Animus — "Constraint-Based Animation: The Implementation of Temporal
123. Anna — ANNotated Ada. ca. 1980. Adds semantic assertions to Ada as formal
124. ANTLR — ANother Tool for Language Recognition. Parser generator, part of
125. APAL — Array Processor Assembly Language. For the DAP parallel machine.
126. APAREL — A PArse REquest Language. PL/I extension to provide BNF parsing
127. APDL — Algorithmic Processor Description Language. ALGOL-60-like language
128. APESE — The language of the APE100 SIMD machine. (See TAO.)
129. APL — A Programming Language. Ken Iverson Harvard U 1957-1960. Designed
130. APL2 — IBM. An APL extension with nested arrays. "APL2 Programming:
131. APLGOL — H-P? An APL with ALGOL-like control structure.
132. APPLE — Revision of APL for the Illiac IV.
133. AppleScript — An object-oriented shell language for the Macintosh,
134. Applesoft BASIC — Version of BASIC on Apple computers.
135. APPLOG — Unifies logic and functional programming. "The APPLOG Language",
136. APT — Automatically Programmed Tools. For numerically controlled machine
137. APX III — Early system on Datatron 200 series. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May
138. AQL — Picture query language, extension of APL. "AQL: A Relational
139. ARCHI — A microarchitecture description language with C-like syntax,
140. Arctic — Real-time functional language, used for music synthesis. "Arctic:
141. ARES — Pictorial query language. "A Query Manipulation System for Image
142. Ariel — Array-oriented language for CDC 6400. "Ariel Reference Manual", P.
143. Argus — LCS, MIT. A successor to CLU. Supports distributed programming
144. Ariel — An array-oriented language. "A New Survey of the Ariel Programming
145. ARITH-MATIC — Alternate name for A-3.
146. ART — Real-time functional language, timestamps each data value when it was
147. ARTSPEAK — Early simple language for plotter graphics. "The Art of
148. ASDIMPL — ASDO IMPlementation Language. A C-like language, run on
149. ASDL — "ASDL — An Object-Oriented Specification Language for Syntax-
150. ASF — An algebraic specification language. "Algebraic Specification", J.A.
151. Ashmedai — Michael Levine Symbolic math package.
152. ASIS — Ada Semantic Interface Specification. A layered, vendor-independent
153. ASF — Algebraic Specification Formalism. CWI. Language for equational
154. ASL — Algebraic Specification Language. "Structured Algebraic
155. ASM — Assembly language on CP/M machines (and a lot of others).
156. ASN.1 — Abstract Syntax Notation. Data description language, designed for
157. ASP — Query language? Sammet 1969, p.702.
158. ASpecT — Algebraic Specification of abstract data Types. Strict functional
159. ASPOL — A Simulation Process-Oriented Language. An ALGOL-like language for
160. ASPEN — Toy language for teaching compiler construction. "ASPEN Language
161. ASPIK — Multiple-style specification language. "Algebraic Specifications
162. Aspirin — MITRE Corp. A language for the description of neural networks.
163. ASPLE — Toy language. "A Sampler of Formal Definitions", M. Marcotty et
164. ASSEMBLY — Early system on IBM 702. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
165. ASTAP — Advanced STatistical Analysis Program. Analyzing electronic
166. Astral — Based on Pascal, never implemented. "ASTRAL: A Structured and
167. AT-3 — Original name of MATH-MATIC. Sammet 1969, p.135.
168. ATLAS — Abbreviated Test Language for Avionics Systems. MIL-spec language
169. Atlas Autocode — Autocode for the Ferranti Atlas, which may have been the
170. Atlas Commercial Language — [?]
171. ATOLL — Acceptance, Test Or Launch Language. Language used for automating
172. A'UM — K. Yoshida and T. Chikayama . Built on top of KL1.
173. Aurora — "The Aurora Or-Parallel Prolog System", E. Lusk et al, Proc 3rd
174. Autocode — Alick E. Glennie, 1952. AUTOCODER was possibly the first
175. AUTOGRAF — Describing bar charts. "User's Manual for AUTOGRAF", Cambridge
176. AUTOGRP — AUTOmated GRouPing system. Interactive statistical analysis. An
177. Autolisp — Dialect of LISP used by the Autocad CAD package, Autodesk,
178. AUTOMATH — Eindhoven, Netherlands. A very high level language for writing
179. Autopass — "Autopass: An Automatic Programming System for Computer-
180. AUTO-PROMPT — Numerical control language from IBM for 3-D milling. Sammet
181. Autostat — "Autostat: A Language for Statistical Programming", A.S. Douglas
182. AVA — A Verifiable Ada. Michael Smith. A formally defined subset of Ada,
183. Avalon/C++ — 1986. Fault-tolerant distributed systems, influenced by
184. Avalon/Common LISP — Prototype only. "Reliable Distributed Computing with
185. Avon — Dataflow language. "AVON: A Dataflow Language", A. Deb, ICS 87,
186. AXIOM — IBM. Commercially available subset of Scratchpad. "Axiom — The
187. AXIS — H-P. Algebraic language with user-definable syntax. [?]
188. AXLE — An early string processing language. Program consists of an
189. AWK — Aho Weinberger Kernighan. 1978. Text processing/macro language.
190. B —
191. B-0 — Original name of FLOW-MATIC, Remington Rand. UNIVAC I or II ca.
192. Babbage — GEC Marconi Ltd. Named after "the first programmer to slip
193. BABEL —
194. BABYLON — Development environment for expert systems.
195. BACAIC — Boeing Airplane Company Algebraic Interpreter Coding system.
196. BAL — Basic Assembly Language. What most people called IBM 360 assembly
197. BALGOL — ALGOL on Burroughs 220. Sammet 1969, p.174.
198. BALITAC — Early system on IBM 650. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
199. BALM — Block And List Manipulation. Harrison, 1970. Extensible language
200. BAP — Early system on IBM 701. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
201. Baroque — Boyer & Moore, 1972. Early logic programming language.
202. BASCMP — A modification of STAGE2, used to implement the Basic Wisp
203. bash — Bourne Again SHell. GNU's command shell for Unix.
204. BASIC — Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. John G. Kemeny &
205. BASIC AUTOCODER — Early system on IBM 7070. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May
206. Basic COBOL — Subset of COBOL from COBOL-60 standards. Sammet 1969, p.339.
207. Basic FORTRAN — Subset of FORTRAN. Sammet 1969, p.150.
208. Basic JOVIAL — Subset of JOVIAL, ca. 1965. Sammet 1969, p.529.
209. bawk — Bob Brodt. AWK-like pattern-matching language, distributed with
210. bc — [Belinda's Calculator?] An interactive mini-language for numerical
211. BC NELIAC — Version of NELIAC, post 1962. Sammet 1969, p.197.
212. BCL — Successor to Atlas Commercial Language. "The Provisional BCL
213. BCPL — Basic CPL. Richards 1969. British systems language, a descendant
214. BDL — Block Diagram Compiler. A block-diagram simulation tool, with
215. BeBOP — Combines sequential and parallel logic programming, object-oriented
216. BEGL — Back End Generator Language. A code generator description language.
217. BELL — Early system on IBM 650 and Datatron 200 series. [Is Datatron
218. BER — Basic Encoding Rules. Provides a universal (contiguous)
219. Bertrand — (named for the British mathematician Bertrand Russell (1872-
220. BETA — Kristensen, Madsen, Moller-Pedersen & Nygaard,
221. BIOR — Early system on UNIVAC I or II. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
222. BLAZE — Single assignment language for parallel processing. "The BLAZE
223. BLAZE 2 — Object-oriented successor to BLAZE. "Concurrent Object Access in
224. Blazon — "From Blazon to Postscript", Daniel V. Klein, LoneWolf Systems,
225. B-LINE — Early CAD language. "B-LINE, Bell Line Drawing Language", A.J.
226. BLISS — Basic Language for Implementation of System Software (or allegedly,
227. BlooP — Douglas Hofstadter, 1979. Imperative language, designed for
228. Blosim — Block-Diagram Simulator. A block-diagram simulator. "A Tool for
229. BLOX — A visual language.
230. Blue — Softech. A language proposed to meet the DoD Ironman requirements
231. BMASF — Basic Module Algebra Specification Language? "Design of a
232. BMDP — BioMeDical Package. UCB, 1961. Statistical language, first
233. BMF — Bird-Meertens Formalism. A calculus for derivation of a functional
234. BNF — Backus Normal Form, later renamed Backus-Naur Form at the suggestion
235. BNR Pascal — "Remote Rendezvous", N. Gammage et al, Soft Prac & Exp
236. BNR Prolog — Constraint logic.
237. Bob — David Betz. A tiny object-oriented language. Dr Dobbs J, Sep 1991,
238. BOEING — Early system on IBM 1103 or 1103A. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May
239. Booster — Data parallel language. "The Booster Language", E. Paalvast, TR
240. BOPL — Basic Object Programming Language. Minimal object-based language
241. BOSS — Bridgport Operating System Software. Derivative of the ISO 1054
242. Boxer — Hal Abelson and Andy diSessa, Berkeley. A visual language, claims
243. BRAVE — ?
244. BRIDGE — Component of ICES for civil engineers. Sammet 1969, p.616.
245. Bridgetalk — A visual language.
246. Brilliant — One of five pedagogical languages based on Markov algorithms,
247. BRUIN — Brown University Interactive Language. Simple interactive language
248. bs — A BASIC-like interactive language, really a sort of super-extended
249. BSL —
250. BUGSYS — Pattern recognition and preparing animated movies, for IBM 7094
251. Burge's Language — Unnamed functional language based on lambda-calculus.
252. Butterfly Common LISP — Parallel version of Common LISP for the BBN
253. Butterfly Scheme — Parallel version of Scheme for the BBN Butterfly.
254. byacc — See yacc.
255. C — Dennis Ritchie, Bell Labs, ca. 1972. Originally a systems language for
256. C* — Thinking Machines, 1987. Superset of ANSI C, object-oriented, data-
257. C++ — Stroustrup . An object-oriented superset of C. In
258. C++Linda — "The AUC C++Linda System", C. Callsen et al, U Aalborg, in
259. C+@ — (formerly Calico). Bell Labs. Object-oriented language, uniformly
260. C-10 — Improved version of COLINGO. Sammet 1969, p.702.
261. C with Classes — Short-lived predecessor to C++. "Classes: An Abstract
262. CADET — Computer Aided Design Experimental Translator. Sammet 1969, p.683.
263. CAFE — "Job Control Languages: MAXIMOP and CAFE", J. Brandon, Proc BCS Symp
264. CAGE — Early system on IBM 704. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
265. CAJOLE — Dataflow language. "The Data Flow Programming Language CAJOLE: An
266. CAL — Course Author Language. CAI language for IBM 360. "Design of a
267. Caliban — Kelly, Imperial College. Declarative annotation language,
268. Calico — See C+@.
269. CAMAL — CAMbridge ALgebra system. Symbolic math used in Celestial
270. Camelot Library — "The Camelot Library", J. Bloch, in Guide to the Camelot
271. CAMIL — Computer Assisted/Managed Instructional Language. Used for CAI at
272. CAML —
273. CAML Light — Xavier Leroy. CAML subset. A small portable implementation,
274. Candle — Language used in Scorpion environment development system. Related
275. Cantor — Object-oriented language with fine-grained concurrency. Athas,
276. CASE SOAP III — Version of SOAP assembly language for IBM 650. Listed in
277. CAT — Common Abstract Tree Language. R. Voeller & Uwe Schmidt, U Kiel,
278. CATO — FORTRAN-like CAI language for PLATO system on CDC 1604. "CSL PLATO
279. C/ATLAS — DoD test language, variant of ATLAS.
280. CAYLEY — Symbolic math system for group theory. John Cannon, U Sydney,
281. CBASIC — Gordon Eubanks, now at Symantec. A BASIC compiler. Evolved
282. cc — Concurrent Constraints. A family of languages generalizing CLP,
283. CC++ — Compositional C++. Extensions to C++ for compositional parallel
284. CCalc — Symbolic math for MS-DOS, available from Simtel.
285. CCL —
286. CCLU — Cambridge CLU. G. Hamilton et al, CUCL. CLU extended to support
287. CCP — Concurrent Constraint Programming. Not a language, but a general
288. CCS — Calculus of Communicating Systems. "A Calculus of Communicating
289. CCSP — Based on CSP. "Contextually Communicating Sequential Processes — A
290. CDIF — CASE Data Interchange Format. Used by Cadre and other CASE tool
291. CDL —
292. Cecil — Object-oriented language combining multi-methods with a classless
293. Cedar — Xerox PARC. Superset of Mesa, adding garbage collection, dynamic
294. CEEMAC+ — Graphics language for DOS 3.3 on Apple ][.
295. CELIP — A cellular language for image processing. "CELIP: A cellular
296. CELLAS — CELLular ASsemblies. A concurrent block-structured language.
297. CELLSIM — Modeling populations of biological cells. "CELLSIM II User's
298. CELP — Computationally Extended Logic Programming. "Computationally
299. CESP — Common ESP. AI Language Inst, Mitsubishi — Object-oriented extension
300. CESSL — CEll Space Simulation Language. Simulating cellular space models.
301. CFD — Computational Fluid Dynamics. FORTRAN-based parallel language for
302. CFP — Communicating Functional Processes. "Communicating Functional
303. CGGL — ("seagull") Code-Generator Generator Language. A machine-
304. CGOL — V.R. Pratt, 1977. A package providing ALGOL-like surface syntax for
305. CHAMIL — Sperry Univac. A Pascal-like microprogramming language. "CHAMIL
306. CHARITY — Cockett, Spencer, Fukushima, 1990-1991. Functional language
307. CHARM —
308. CHARM++ — An object-oriented parallel programming system, similar to CHARM
309. Charme — Bull, 1989. A language with discrete combinatorial constraint
310. CHARYBDIS — LISP program to display math expressions. Related to MATHLAB.
311. CHASM — CHeap ASseMbler. Shareware assembler for MS-DOS.
312. CHI — A wide spectrum language, the forerunner of Refine. "Research on
313. CHILI — D.L. Abt. Language for systems programming, based on ALGOL 60 with
314. CHILL — CCITT HIgh-Level Language. ca. 1980. Real-time language widely
315. CHIP —
316. CHIP-48 — Reimplementation of CHIP-8 for the HP-48 calculator. Andreas
317. CHIP-8 — RCA, Late 70's. Low-level language (really a high-level machine
318. CHISEL — An extension of C for VLSI design, implemented as a C
319. CHOCS — Generalization of CCS. "A Calculus of Higer-Order Communicating
320. CIAL — Interval constraint logic language. Contains a linear Gauss-Seidel
321. CIEL — Object-oriented Prolog-like language. "CIEL: Classes et Instances
322. CIF — Caltech Intermediate Form. Geometry language for VLSI design, in
323. Cigale — A parser generator language with extensible syntax. "CIGALE: A
324. CIL — Common Intermediate Language. "Construction of a Transportable,
325. CIMS PL/I — Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences PL/I. A PL/I
326. CIP-L — CIP Language. (CIP stands for Computer-aided Intuition-guided
327. CIRCAL — "CIRCAL and the Representation of Communication, Concurrency and
328. CITRAN — Caltech's answer to MIT's JOSS. Sammet 1969, p.217.
329. CL — Control Language. Batch language for the IBM RPG/38, used in
330. CLAM —
331. Clarion — MS-DOS 4GL.
332. CLASP — Computer Language for AeronauticS and Programming. NASA. Real-
333. Classic-Ada — Object-oriented extension to Ada, said to be Smalltalk-like.
334. Clean — Subset of Lean. Experimental lazy higher-order functional language
335. CLEAR — Specification language based on initial algebras. "An Informal
336. CLEO — Clear Language for Expressing Orders. ICL, 1960's. Used until
337. C-Linda — The most widely used variant of Linda, with C as the base
338. CLIP —
339. Clipper — Compiled dBASE dialect from Nantucket Corp, LA. Versions:
340. CLIPS — C Language Integrated Production System. NASA JSC. A language for
341. CLISP — Conversational LISP. A mixed English-like, Algol-like surface
342. CLIX — "Overview of a Parallel Object-Oriented Language CLIX", J. Hur et
343. Clock — ? Mentioned in the documentation for TXL.
344. CLOS — Common LISP Object System. Object-oriented extension to Common
345. CLP —
346. CLP(R) — Constraint Logic Programming (Real). Joxan Jaffar, TJWRC & S.
347. CLP* — Derivative of CLP. "CLP* and Constraint Abstraction", T. Hickey,
348. CLP(sigma*) — "CLP(sigma*): Constraint Logic Programming with Regular
349. CLU — CLUster. 1974-1975. CLU is an object-oriented language of the
350. Cluster 86 — Shang, Nanjing U ca1986. Distributed object-oriented
351. CMAY — "A Microkernel for Distributed Applications", R. Bagrodia et al,
352. CML —
353. Cmm — C Minus Minus. Scripting language.
354. CMS-2 — General purpose language used for command and control applications
355. CO2 — (a blend of C and O2). Object-oriented database language. GIP
356. COALA — "COALA: The Object Code of the Compiler Producing System", S.
357. COBOL — COmmon Business Oriented Language. 1960. CODASYL Committee, Apr
358. COBOL-1961 Extended — Short-lived separation of COBOL specifications.
359. CoCoA — [Symbolic math? On a Radio Shack CoCo??? I have no idea.]
360. Cocol — Coco Language. A language for writing left-attributed LL(1)
361. Code 2.0 — Large-grain dataflow language. Has a graphical interface for
362. CODIL — COntext Dependent Information Language. Early language for non-
363. COFF — Common Object File Format. Binary file format used by Unix System V
364. COGENT — COmpiler and GENeralized Translator. Compiler writing language
365. COGO — Co-ordinate geometry problems in Civil Engineering. A subsystem of
366. Coherent Parallel C — Data parallel language. "Coherent Parallel C", E.
367. COIF — FORTRAN with interactive graphic extensions for circuit design, on
368. COLASL — Early system for numerical problems on IBM 7030. Special
369. COLD — A sugared version of COLD-K.
370. COLD-K — Formal design kernel language for describing (sequential) software
371. COLINGO — Compile On-LINe and GO. MITRE Corp. English-like query system
372. COMAL — COMmon Algorithmic Language. Benedict Loefstedt & Borge
373. COMIT — Victor H. Yngve, MIT, 1957-8. The first string-handling and
374. COMIT II — "Computer Programming with COMIT II", Victor H. Yngve, MIT
375. Comma — COMputable MAthematics. Esprit project at KU Nijmegen.
376. COMMEN — L.J. Cohen. Proc SJCC 30:671-676, AFIPS (Spring 1967).
377. Commercial Translator — English-like pre-COBOL language for business data
378. Common LISP — An effort begun in 1981 to provide a common dialect of LISP.
379. CommonLoops — Xerox. An object-oriented LISP. Led to CLOS. "CommonLoops:
380. Common Objects — H-P. An object-oriented LISP. "Inheritance and the
381. Compact COBOL — Subset of COBOL defined, but not published, ca. 1961.
382. Compas Pascal — Predecessor of Turbo Pascal, by POLY Data of Denmark.
383. COMPASS — COMPrehensive ASSembler. Assembly language on CDC machines.
384. Compel — COMpute ParallEL. The first single-assignment language. "A
385. Compiler-Compiler — Early compiler generator for the Atlas, with its own
386. COMPL — "The COMPL Language and Operating System", A.G. Fraser et al,
387. COMPREHENSIVE — Early system on MIT's Whirlwind. Listed in CACM 2(5):16
388. COMPROSL — COMpound PROcedural Scientific Language. Language for
389. Computer Animation Movie Language. "A Computer Animation Movie Language
390. Computer Compiler — Proposed language for compiler design. Sammet 1969,
391. Computer Design Language — ALGOL-like language for computer design. "An
392. COMSL — COMmunication System Simulation Language. "COMSL — A Communication
393. COMTRAN — "Communications Computer Language COMTRAN", D.W. Clark et al,
394. ConC — Concurrent extension of C based on DPN (decomposed Petri nets),
395. Concert/C — IBM TJWRC, July 1993. A parallel extension of ANSI C with
396. CONCUR — "CONCUR, A Language for Continuous Concurrent Processes", R.M.
397. Concurrent Aggregates (CA) — 1990. Concurrent object-oriented language
398. Concurrent C —
399. Concurrent C++ — "Concurrent C++: Concurrent Programming with Class(es)",
400. Concurrent Clean — An implementation of CFP. A version of Clean for
401. Concurrent CLU — Hamilton, Cambridge U, 1984. "Preserving Abstraction in
402. Concurrent Euclid — J.R. Cordy & R.C. Holt, U Toronto, 1980. Subset of
403. Concurrent LISP — "A Multi-Processor System for Concurrent Lisp", S.
404. Concurent Oberon — not a separate language, but rather a modification of
405. Concurrent Pascal — Brinch Hansen, 1972-75. Extension of a Pascal subset,
406. Concurrent Prolog — Ehud "Udi" Shapiro, Yale .
407. Concurrent Scheme — M. Swanson . A parallel
408. ConcurrentSmalltalk — Concurrent variant of Smalltalk (what did you
409. condela — Connection Definition Language. A language for defining neural
410. CONIC — "Dynamic Configuration for Distributed Systems", J. Kramer et al,
411. Connection Machine LISP — LISP with a parallel data structure, the
412. CONNIVER — AI language for automatic theorem proving. An outgrowth of
413. ConstraintLisp — Object-oriented constraint language based on CSP. An
414. CONSTRAINTS — Constraints using value inference. "CONSTRAINTS: A Language
415. Consul — Constraint-based [future-based?] language with LISP-like syntax.
416. CONVERT —
417. cooC — Concurrent Object-Oriented C. Toshiba. Concurrent object execution
418. COOL —
419. CORAL —
420. CORBIE — Early system on IBM 704. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
421. CORC — CORnell Compiler. Simple language for student math problems. "The
422. Coroutine Pascal — "Control Separation in Programming languages", Lemon et
423. CORREGATE — Based on IT. Sammet 1969, p.139.
424. Correlatives and Conversions — Data description language used in the Pick
425. CORTL — Carl McConnell. Intermediate language, a form of RTL?
426. Coursewriter III — ca. 1976. Simple CAI language. "Coursewriter III,
427. COWSEL — COntrolled Working SpacE Language. Burstall and Popplestone, U
428. CP — A concurrent Prolog. "The Concurrent Logic Programming Language CP":
429. CParaOps5 — Anurag Acharya, . Parallel version of
430. CPL —
431. CPS —
432. C-Refine — Lutz Prechelt Symbolic naming of code
433. CRISP — Jeff Barnett, SDC, Santa Monica CA, early 70's. A LISP-like
434. CRL — Carnegie Representation Language. (c)Carnegie Group Inc. Frame
435. CROSSTABS — Simple language for statistical analysis of tabular data.
436. Crystal — Concurrent Representation of Your Space-Time ALgorithms. A
437. CS-4 — "CS-4 Language Reference Manual and Operating System Interface", Ben
438. CS-Prolog — Distributed logic language. "CS-Prolog on Multi-Transputer
439. C-Scheme — Joe Bartlett at DEC/WRL? Dialect of Scheme implemented in and
440. csh — C-Shell. William Joy. Command shell interpreter and script language
441. CSL —
442. CSM — "CSM — A Distributed Programming Language", S. Zhongxiu et al, IEEE
443. CSMP — Continuous System Modeling Program. Simulation of dynamics of
444. CSP — Communicating Sequential Processes. 1978. A notation for
445. CSP/80 — Based on CSP. "CSP/80: A Language for Communicating Processes",
446. CS/PCode — Used at Microsoft.
447. CSP/k — Concurrent SP/k. A PL/I-like concurrent language. "Structured
448. CSP-S — "Implementation of CSP-S for Description of Distributed
449. CSPS — "Toward Comprehensive Specification of Distributed Systems", G.
450. CS/QCode — Used at Microsoft.
451. CSS/II — Computer System Simulator II. Like GPSS, for IBM 360. "Computer
452. CSSA — Object-oriented language. "Key Concepts in the INCAS Multicomputer
453. CSSL — Continuous System Simulation Language. Versions include ACSL,
454. CSTools — Concurrency through message-passing to named message queues.
455. CTL —
456. Cube — Three-dimensional visual language for higher-order logic. "The Cube
457. CUCH — CUrry-CHurch. Lambda-calculus. "A Type-Theoretical Alternative to
458. Culler-Fried System — System for interactive mathematics. Sammet 1969,
459. CUPID — Graphic query language. "CUPID: A Graphic Oriented Facility for
460. CuPit — Parallel language for neural networks. "CuPit — A Parallel
461. CUPL — Cornell University Programming Language. Simple math problems,
462. CWIC — Compiler for Writing and Implementing Compilers. Val Schorre. One
463. CYBIL — Control Data's system programming language in the 80's. Major
464. CYCL — Frame language. "Building Large Knowledge-Based Systems", D.B.
465. CypherText — Interactive language for text formatting and typesetting.
466. D —
467. DACAPO — Broad-range hardware specification language. "Mixed Level
468. DACTL — Declarative Alvey Compiler Target Language. U East Anglia. An
469. DAD — Declarative Ada Dialect. Dialect of Ada intended to aid rapid
470. Daisy — Functional. "Daisy Programming Manual", S.D. Johnson, CS Dept TR,
471. DAISY 201 — Early system on G-15. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
472. DAP-16 — assembly language for the Honeywell 2600 test station.
473. DAP Fortran — "Efficient High Speed Computing with the Distributed Array
474. DAPLEX — "The Functional Data Model and the Data Language DAPLEX", D.W.
475. DARE — Differential Analyzer REplacement. A family of simulation languages
476. Darms — Music language. "The Darms Project: A Status Report", R.F.
477. Dartmouth BASIC — Term for the original BASIC by Kemeny & Kurtz.
478. DAS — Digital Analog Simulator. Represents analog computer design.
479. DASL — Datapoint's Advanced System Language. Gene Hughes. A cross between
480. Data/BASIC — Also known as Pick BASIC. A BASIC-like language with database
481. DATABUS — DATApoint BUSiness Language. Like an interpreted assembly
482. DATACODE I — Early system on Datatron 200 series. Listed in CACM 2(5):16
483. Dataparallel-C — Hatcher & Quinn, U New Hampshire. C with parallel
484. Data Parallel Haskell — Adds PODs and POD comprehensions to Haskell.
485. Data Structures Language — MAD dialect with extensions for lists and
486. DATA-TEXT — Harvard. Numerical computations in the Social Sciences.
487. DataVis — Dataflow language for scientific visualization. "Data Flow
488. dBASE — Language used by the dBASE system. First release was dBASE II, ca
489. DBC — Data-parallel Bit-serial C. SRC, Bowie MD. Based on MPL.
490. dBFAST — dBASE dialect for MS-DOS, MS-Windows.
491. DBPL — Procedural language with relational database constructs. A
492. dBXL — dBASE-like interpreter/language for MS-DOS from WordTech, Orinda,
493. dc — Desk Calculator. A stack-based mini-language and its interpreter,
494. DCALGOL — Data Communications ALGOL. A superset of Burroughs Extended
495. DCDL — Digital Control Design Language. A language for simulating computer
496. DCG — A variant of BNF.
497. DCL —
498. DDL —
499. DDM — Dataflow language. "The Architecture and System Method of DDM-1: A
500. DEACON — Direct English Access and CONtrol. English-like query system.
501. Delirium — An embedding coordinate language for parallel programming,
502. Delta —
503. Delta-Prolog — Prolog extension with AND-parallelism, don't-know
504. DEMON — Program generator for differential equation problems. N.W.
505. Design System language — J. Gaffney, Evans & Sutherland 1976. Interpretive
506. DETAB — DEcision TABle. A. Chapman, 1964. Decision table COBOL
507. DETOL — Directly Executable Test Oriented Language. Simple language to
508. Deva — Functional. "The Generic Development Language Deva: Presentation
509. DEX — W. van Oortmerssen. A cross between Modula-2 and C.
510. DFC — Dataflow language. "Data Flow Lanuage DFC: Design and
511. DG/L —
512. DIALECT — High-level language for LALR grammars. Part of Software Refinery
513. DIALOG — Illinois Inst Tech, 1966. Interactive math using graphics tablet.
514. DIAMAG — An interactive extension of ALGOL. Sammet 1969, p.195.
515. Diamond — One of five pedagogical languages based on Markov algorithms,
516. DIANA — Descriptive Intermediate Attributed Notation for Ada. Goos & Wulf,
517. DIBOL — Digital Interactive Business Oriented Language. DEC, 1970.
518. Dictionary APL — nickname for Sharp APL.
519. Dijkstra's guarded command language — Edsger Dijkstra, ca. 1974.
520. DIMATE — Depot Installed Maintenance Automatic Test Equipment. For
521. DinnerBell — Object-oriented dataflow language with single assignment.
522. DINO — Data parallel language, a superset of C. "The DINO Parallel
523. Disiple — DSP language. "A Compiler that Easily Retargets High Level
524. Dislang — "Dislang: A Distributed Programming Language/System", C. Li et
525. Distributed Eiffel — "Distributed Eiffel: A Language for Programming Multi-
526. Distributed Processes — (Also "DP"). First concurrent language based on
527. Distributed Smalltalk — "The Design and Implementation of DIstributed
528. DL/1 — Query language, linear keyword.
529. DLG — DFA-based Lexical analyzer Generator. Part of PCCTS (Purdue
530. DLP — Logic programming similar to Prolog, combined with parallel object
531. DLX — Assembly language. "Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach",
532. DMAD — Diagnostic Machine Aid-Digital. Functional testing of digital
533. DMALGOL — ALGOL with extensions to interface to DMS II, the Burroughs
534. DML —
535. Doc — Directed Oc. "Programming Language Doc and Its Self-Description, or
536. DOCUS — Display Oriented Computer Usage System. Interactive system using
537. DoD-1 — Unofficial name of the language that became Ada.
538. DOUGLAS — Early system on IBM 701. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
539. DOL — Display Oriented Language. Subsystem of DOCUS. Sammet 1969, p.678.
540. DOVPA — Dijkstra's Own Version of Pidgin Algol. See "Dijkstra's guarded
541. DOW COMPILER — Early system on Datatron 200 series. Listed in CACM 2(5):16
542. DOWL — Distributed OWL. B. Achauer, U Karlsruhe. An extension of Trellis
543. d-Prolog — Prolog extended with defeasible reasoning.
544. DPL — DECmmp Parallel Language. C-like parallel language for the DECmpp
545. DPL-82 — "DPL-82: A Language for Distributed Processing", L. Ericson, Proc
546. DPS — Real-time language with direct expression of timing requests.
547. dpSather — Data-parallel Sather. Fine-grained deterministic parallelism
548. draco — Chris Gray, 1987. A blend of Pascal, C and ALGOL 68. Implemented
549. DRAGON — Implementation language used by BTI Computer Systems.
550. DRAGOON — Colin Atkinson, Imperial College 1989. (current address:
551. DROOL — Dave's Recycled Object-Oriented Language. Language for writing
552. DRUCO I — Early system on IBM 650. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
553. DSL —
554. DSM —
555. DSP/C — Numerical extension to C, for DSP applications. "DSP/C: A Standard
556. DSP32 Assembly Language — A high-level assembly language for the DSP32
557. DSPL: Digital Signal Processing Language. A C-derived DSP language. "The
558. DTALGOL — Decision Table Algol. Victoria U, Wellington. An ALGOL superset
559. DUAL-607 — Early system on IBM 701. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
560. Dual FCP — [?]
561. DuoTalk — Smalltalk-like language with separate inheritance hierarchies for
562. Durra — Description language for coarse-grained concurrency on
563. DYANA — DYnamics ANAlyzer. Early specialized language for vibrational and
564. Dylan — DYnamic LANguage. Advanced Technology Group East, Apple Computer.
565. Dynace — DYNAmic C language Extension. Blake McBride, 1993. Extension of
566. DYNAMO — DYNamic MOdels. Phyllis Fox & A.L. Pugh, 1959. Continuous
567. DYSAC — Digital Simulated Analog Computer. Sammet 1969, p.629.
568. DYSTAL — DYnamic STorage ALlocation. Adds lists, strings, sorting,
569. E —
570. Eagle — dBASE-like dialect bundled with Emerald Bay, sold by Migent from
571. Ease — General purpose parallel programming language, combining the process
572. EASE II — Early system on IBM 650. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
573. EASIAC — Early system on Midac computer. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May
574. EASY FOX — Early system on JOHNNIAC computer. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May
575. EBASIC — Gordon Eubanks, now at Symantec. Form of BASIC that led to
576. EBNF — Extended BNF. Backus-Naur Form with one or more added constructs,
577. ECAP II — Electronic Circuit Analysis Program. Simple language for
578. Echidna — Constraint logic programming embedded in an object-oriented
579. ECL — Extensible CL. Wegbreit, ca 1970. "The ECL Programming System", B.
580. ECMA — Subset of ALGOL. Sammet 1969, p.180.
581. ECP — Extended Concurrent Prolog. Concurrent Prolog with OR parallelism,
582. ECRC-Prolog — Evidently Prolog with coroutine extensions. "ECRC-Prolog
583. ECSL — Extended CSL. Discrete simulation language, successor to CSL.
584. ECSP — An extension to CSP, supporting dynamic communication channels and
585. ECSS II — Extendable Computer System Simulator. An extension of SIMSCRIPT
586. ECSSL — Formerly APSE. Equation-oriented specifications for continuous
587. Eden — Concurrent object-oriented language with both synchronous and
588. EDIF — Electronic Design Interchange Format. Not a programming language,
589. Edinburgh Prolog — Prolog dialect which eventually developed into the
590. Edison —
591. EDL —
592. EFL — Extended FORTRAN Language. FORTRAN preprocessor to provide
593. Eh — "A". Software Portability Group, U Waterloo. A typeless language
594. Eiffel — Bertrand Meyer ca. 1986. An object-oriented
595. Eiffel 3 — Latest version of the Eiffel language. Available as Eiffel/S
596. EL1 — Extensible Language One. B. Wegbreit, Harvard ca 1974. An
597. el(alpha) — Aims to be a high-level language that knows about real
598. Elan — "Top-down Programming with Elan", C.H.A. Koster, Ellis Horwood 1987.
599. ELF — Binary format used by System V Release 4 Unix.
600. ELI —
601. ELISP — Chuck Hedrick, Rutgers. Implemented originally for DEC-20's, later
602. Elk — Extension Language Kit. Oliver Laumann ,
603. ELLA — Defence Research Agency, Malvern UK, 1979. First prototype 1982.
604. ELLA 2000 — Version of ELLA with more powerful generics and user-defined
605. Ellie — Object-oriented language with fine-grained parallelism for
606. ELLIS — EuLisp LInda System. An object-oriented Linda system written for
607. ELMAGUIDE — Tallinn Poly Inst, 1978. Metalanguage used for interpretation
608. ELMAMETA — Tallinn Poly Inst, 1978. A FORTRAN extension used for lexical,
609. ELP —
610. ELSIE — A distributed version of ELLIS. "Using Object-Oriented Mechanisms
611. EM-1 — Experimental Machine. An intermediate language, the assembly
612. EMA — Extended Mercury Autocode. (See Autocode).
613. EMACS LISP — Richard Stallman. Variant of LISP used by the EMACS editor.
614. Emerald — U Washington, early 80's. The successor of EPL[3]. A
615. EML — Extended ML. A language for formally specifying SML programs.
616. EMPL — Extensible Microprogramming Language. An early object-oriented
617. English — Database language used in the Pick OS. "Exploring the Pick
618. EOL — Expression Oriented Language. A low-level language for strings.
619. EPILOG —
620. EPL —
621. EPROS — A specification/prototyping language. Implemented in Franz Lisp.
622. EPSILON — P.A. Ershov, Novosibirsk, 1967. Macro language with high level
623. EPSIMONE — Concurrent simulation language derived from Simone. "EPSIMONE
624. EqL — An equational language. Bharat Jayaraman .
625. EQLog — OBJ2 plus logic programming based on Horn logic with equality.
626. Eqn — Language for typesetting mathematics. "A System for Typesetting
627. Equel — Embedded Quel. INGRES, Inc. Combines QUEL theories with C code.
628. Erlang — Armstrong, Williams & Virding, Ellemtel, Sweden. Concurrent
629. ERFPI — Early system on LGP-30 computer. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May
630. es —
631. ES-1 — Early text editing interpreter. Sammet 1969, p.684.
632. ESCAPE — Early system on IBM 650. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
633. ESI — Dialect of JOSS. Sammet 1969, p.217.
634. esim — A simulation language for VLSI, at the switch level. Primitives are
635. ESP —
636. ESPOL — An ALGOL superset used to write the MCP (Master Control Program) OS
637. Estelle — A Pascal extension for specification of computer network
638. Esterel — Distributed language for synchronous interaction of real-time
639. ET — Bernd Gersdorf, U Bremen. An integration of functional and logic
640. ET++ — Weinand, UBILAB Zurich. A smalltalk-like system for Suns, built on
641. ETC — ExTendible Compiler. FORTRAN-like, macro extendible. "ETC — An
642. ETHER — Concurrent object-oriented language?
643. Euclid — (named for the Greek geometer, fl ca 300 BC.) A Pascal descendant
644. EULER —
645. EuLisp — 1985-present. LISP dialect intended to be a common European
646. Euphoria — End User Programming with Hierarchical Objects for Robust
647. Eurisko — Lenat 1978. Language for "opportunistic programming".
648. Eva —
649. EXAPT — EXtended APT.
650. EXEC — Early batch language for IBM VM/CMS systems. SC19-6209 Virtual
651. EXEC2 — IBM, late 70's. SC24-5219 Virtual Machine/System Product EXEC 2
652. expect — A script language for dealing with interactive programs. Written
653. Express —
654. Extended ALGOL — An extension of ALGOL 60, used to write the ESPOL compiler
655. Extended C++ — G. Masotti Extensions to C++
656. Extended ML — Don Sannella, Edinburgh. Algebraic specification meets
657. Extended Pascal — ISO, 1992. A superset of ANSI and ISO Pascal. Many
658. EXTRA — Object-oriented, Pascal style, handles sets. "A Data Model and
659. EZ — High-level string-processing language derived from SNOBOL4, SL5 and
660. FAC — Functional Array Calculator. APL-like but purely functional and
661. Facile — SUNY Stony Brook, late 80's. Since 1991 at ECRC, Munich. Extends
662. FACT — Fully Automated Compiling Technique. ca. 1959. Pre-COBOL
663. FAD — "FAD, A Simple and Powerful Database Language", F. Bancilon et al,
664. FAIR — Early system on IBM 705. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
665. FALSE — W. van Oortmerssen. A small compiled extensible language with
666. FAP — Assembly language for Sperry-Rand 1103 and 1103A. Listed in CACM
667. FAS — General purpose language sponsored by the Finnish government in the
668. FASBOL — "FASBOL. A SNOBOL4 Compiler", P.J. Santos, Memo ERL-M134, UC
669. FASE — Fundamentally Analyzable Simplified English. L.E. McMahon, Bell
670. FAST — FORTRAN Automatic Symbol Translator. Assembly language on IBM 650
671. FC — Functional language. "FC Manual", L. Augustsson, Memo 13, Programming
672. F-code — Code for the FPM abstract machine, an optimized SECD machine.
673. FCP — Flat Concurrent Prolog. "Design and Implementation of Flat
674. Feel — Free and Eventually EuLisp. An initial implementation of EuLisp.
675. FEL — Function Equation Language. Programs are sets of definitions.
676. FFP — Formal FP. Similar to FP, but with regular sugarless syntax, for
677. FGHC — Flat GHC. A variant of GHC in which guard calls can be only to
678. FGL —
679. FGL+LV — "Functional Programming and the Logical Variable", G. Lindstrom,
680. FGRAAL — FORTRAN extended GRAph Algorithmic Language. A FORTRAN extension
681. FIDIL — Based on "maps", generalized arrays whose index sets ("domains")
682. FIDO — FInite DOmains. A constraint language implemented on top of Prolog.
683. Fifth — An enhanced version of FORTH. M.S. Dissertation, Cliff Click
684. File Composition — Typesetting language. "File Composition System
685. F+L — Equational clauses within function definitions to solve for logical
686. FL — Function Level. John Backus, ca. 1985. Successor to FP. Dynamically
687. FLAIR — Early system on IBM 650. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
688. FLAP — Symbolic math, for IBM 360. "FLAP Programmer's Manual", A.H. Morris
689. Flavors — D. Weinreb & D.A. Moon 1980. LISP
690. Fleng — Parallel logic language. "Massively Parallel Implementation of
691. FLEX —
692. Flex 2 — ca. 1980. A preprocessor designed to make FORTRAN look more like
693. FLIC — Functional Language Intermediate Code. Intermediate language used
694. FLIP —
695. FLIP-SPUR — Early system on IBM 1103 or 1103A. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May
696. F-Logic — "F-Logic: A Higher-Order Language for Reasoning about Objects,
697. FLOP — Early system on IBM 701. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
698. FlooP — Douglas Hofstadter, 1979. Imperative language, designed for
699. FLOW-MATIC or FLOWMATIC — (originally B-0). Remington Rand, 1958.
700. FLPL — FORTRAN List Processing Language. Rochester, Gelernter, and
701. FLUB — First Level Under Bootstrap. Language for an abstract machine,
702. FMPL — Frobozz Magic Programming Language. Experimental Computing
703. FOCAL —
704. FOCL — Expert system shell, a backward chaining rule interpreter for Mac.
705. FOCUS — Hierarchical database language. Information Builders Inc.
706. FOIL — File Oriented Interpretive Language. CAI language. "FOIL — A File
707. foogol — Per Lindberg. A tiny ALGOL-like language based on the VALGOL I
708. FOOL — Fool's Lisp. A small Scheme interpreter.
709. FOOP — OBJ2 plus object-orientation. "Extensions and Foundations for
710. FORC — Early system on IBM 704. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
711. Force — dBASE dialect for MS-DOS.
712. The Force — Data parallel language, providing extensions to Fortran for
713. ForceOne — Andrew K. Wright. "Polymorphism in the Compiled Language
714. ForceTwo — Andrew K. Wright. An unofficial successor to ForceOne.
715. FORM — Jos Vermaseren 1989. Designed for speedy
716. FORMAC — FORmula MAnipulation Compiler. J. Sammet & Tobey, IBM Boston APD,
717. FORMAL —
718. FORMAT-FORTRAN — FORTRAN Matrix Abstraction Technique FORTRAN.
719. Formes — Object-oriented language for music composition and synthesis,
720. FORML — Formal Object Role Modeling Language. CASE language?
721. Formula —
722. Formula ALGOL — ALGOL extension for symbolic math, strings and lists.
723. Fornax — "Fornax: A General Purpose Programming Language", J. Storrs Hall,
724. Forsythe — An ALGOL-like language. "Preliminary Design of the Programming
725. FORTH — Fourth. Charles H. Moore, 1960's. An interactive extensible
726. FORTRAN — FORmula TRANslator. The first and still the most widely used
727. FORTRAN I — John Backus, IBM for the IBM 704. Design begun 1954, compiler
728. FORTRAN II — 1958. Added subroutines.
729. FORTRAN III — This was only distributed to ca. 20 sites. See Wexelblat.
730. FORTRAN IV — IBM 1962. For the IBM 7090/94. Many implementations went
731. FORTRAN V — Preliminary work on adding character handling facilities by IBM
732. FORTRAN VI — Internal IBM name for early PL/I work ca. 1963. Sammet 1969,
733. FORTRAN 66 — FORTRAN IV standardized. ASA X3.9-1966.
734. FORTRAN 77 — Block IF, PARAMETER, SAVE statements added, still no WHILE.
735. Fortran 90 — Previously Fortran 8x and Fortran Extended. An extensive
736. Fortran D — Ken Kennedy, Rice U. A data-parallel Fortran. "Fortran D
737. Fortran-Linda — Scientific Computer Assocs .
738. Fortran M — Parallel extensions to Fortran with processes and channels.
739. FORTRAN-Plus — FORTRAN for the DAP parallel machine, implements many
740. FORTRANSIT — FORTRAN Internal Translator. Subset of FORTRAN translated
741. FORTRUNCIBLE — A cross between FORTRAN and RUNCIBLE for the IBM 650.
742. FOSIL — Fredette's Operating System Interface Language. A portable job
743. FoxBASE+ — dBASE III+-like product from Fox Software, Perrysburg, OH.
744. FoxPRO — dBASE IV-like product from Fox Software, Perrysburg, OH.
745. FP — Functional Programming. Backus. Combinator based. "Can Programming
746. FP2 — Functional Parallel Programming. Term rewrite rules used to specify
747. FP/M — An intermediate language for functional languages, used to implement
748. FQL — Functional database language. "An Implementation Technique for
749. FrameKit — Frame language. "The FrameKit User's Guide", E. Nyberg, TR CMU-
750. FRANK — "Using BINS for Interprocess Communication", P.C.J. Graham, SIGPLAN
751. Franz Lisp — (named for the Hungarian composer Franz Liszt (1811-1886)) R.
752. FRED — Robert Carr. Language used by Framework, Ashton-Tate.
753. Fresco — Object-oriented specification language. "Refinement in Fresco",
754. Fresh — "Fresh: A Higher-Order Language Based on Unification", G. Smolka,
755. FRINGE — C. Katz, GE, 1961. Subcomponent of GE-255 GECOM system. Sorting
756. FRL — Frame Representation Language. MIT. "The FRL Manual", R. Roberts et
757. FRMT-FTRN — Scientific language, listed [?] 1976.
758. FSL — Formal Semantics Language. Language for compiler writing. "A Formal
759. FSMDL — Finite State Machine Description Language. [?]
760. Fugue — Music language, implemented in Xlisp. "Fugue: A Functional
761. Fun — A typed lambda-calculus, similar to SOL[2]. "On Understanding Types,
762. FUNLOG — Functional programming plus unification. "Lazy" in the sense that
763. FX-87 — Effects. A polymorphic language based on Scheme, allowing side
764. FX-90 — Partial type and effect reconstruction and first-class modules.
765. G —
766. Gabriel — Graphical DSP language for simulation and real systems. "A
767. GADS — Picture retrieval language. "Integrated Geographical Databases: The
768. Gaelic — For automated test programs. Used in military, essentially
769. Galaxy — An extensible language in the vein of EL/1 and RCC. "Introduction
770. Galileo — "Galileo: A Strongly Typed Interactive Conceptual Language", A.
771. Gambit — A variant of Scheme R3.99 supporting the 'future' construct of
772. GAMMA —
773. GAN — Generating and Analyzing Networks. "GAN — A System for Generating
774. GAP — Groups Algorithms and Programming. Johannes Meier, Alice Niemeyer,
775. GAPLog — General Amalgamated Programming with Logic. LOGPRO group,
776. Gargoyle — For compiler writing. J.V. Garwick, CACM 7(1):16-20, (Jan
777. GARP — Graphical language for concurrent programming. "Visual Concurrent
778. GASP — Graph Algorithm and Software Package. PL/I extension for
779. GAT — Generalized Algebraic Translator. Improved version of IT. On IBM
780. GATE — GAT Extended? Based on IT. Sammet 1969, p.139.
781. Gauss — Aptech Systems [?]
782. Gawk — GNU's implementation of a superset of POSIX awk, a pattern scanning
783. GCL —
784. G-Code —
785. GDPL — Generalized Distributed Programming Language. "GDPL — A Generalized
786. GEA — Graph Extended ALGOL. Extension of ALGOL-60 for graph manipulation,
787. GECOM — For the GE-255. Somewhat akin to COBOL with some ALGOL features
788. Gedanken — John Reynolds, 1970. "GEDANKEN — A Simple Typeless Language
789. GEL — Scripting language used in the object-oriented development
790. General Purpose Graphic Language — "A General Purpose Graphic Language",
791. Gentleman's Portable Coroutine System — Coroutine package in FORTRAN. "A
792. GEORGE — Charles Hamblin, 1957. One of the earliest programming languages,
793. GEPURS — Early system on IBM 701. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
794. Gerald — "Gerald: An Exceptional Lazy Functional Programming Language",
795. GEST — Generic Expert System Tool. Expert system shell with frames,
796. GHC — Guarded Horn Clauses. K. Ueda. Parallel logic language similar to
797. Gia-2 — Gary's Ikonas Assembler. "Differences Between GIA-2 and C", G.
798. GIM-1 — Generalized Information Management Language. Nelson, Pick,
799. GIN5 — Special-purpose macro assembler used to build the GEORGE 3 operating
800. Ginger — U Warwick. Simple functional language with parallel constructs.
801. GIP — General Interpretive Programme. 1956. An early interpreted language
802. GIRL — Graph Information Retrieval Language. Handling directed graphs.
803. GKS — Graphical Kernel System.
804. GL — Graphics Language. Silicon Graphics.
805. Glammar — A pattern transformation language for text-to-text translation,
806. GLASS — General LAnguage for System Semantics. Esprit project at KU
807. Glenda — Seyfarth, Arumugham and Bickam, U South Mississippi. A
808. Glish — Vern Paxson . Language for buiilding loosely
809. Glisp — Generalized LISP. D.C. Smith, Aug 1990. A coordinated set of
810. GLOS — Graphics Language Object System. Dan Johnston dan@cs.uq.oz.au> and
811. GLOW — A POP-11 variant with lexical scope. Reviewed in Byte's UK edition,
812. Glypnir — 1966. An ALGOL-like language with parallel extensions. Similar
813. GMAP — GCOS Macro Assembler Program — Macro assembler for the GCOS-8
814. GMPL — A microprogramming language for an HP machine. "A Microprogramming
815. Goedel — Declarative language for AI, based on many-sorted logic. Strongly
816. Gofer — Mark Jones , Oxford 1991. Similar to
817. GOL — General Operating Language. Subsystem of DOCUS. Sammet 1969, p.678.
818. GOM — Good Old MAD. Don Boettner, U Mich. MAD for the IBM 360. Parts of
819. GOOD — Graph-Oriented Object Database. A graph manipulation language for
820. GOSPL — Graphics-Oriented Signal Processing Language. A graphical DSP
821. GP — Early system on UNIVAC I or II. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
822. GPL —
823. GPM — General Purpose Macro-generator. Early text-processing language
824. GPSS — General Purpose Systems Simulator. Geoffrey Gordon, 1960. Discrete
825. GPX — Early system on UNIVAC II. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
826. GRAAL — ("Grail") General Recursive Applicative and Algorithmic Language.
827. GRAF — GRaphic Additions to FORTRAN. FORTRAN plus graphic data types.
828. GRAIL — Graphical Input Language. Flowchart language entered on a graphics
829. GRAIN — Pictorial query language. "Pictorial Information Systems", S.K.
830. GRAM — An extension of BNF used by the SIS compiler generator. "SIS —
831. Grapes — A Modula-like system description language. "GRAPES Language
832. Graphic ALGOL — Generation of shaded perspective picures in real time. "An
833. Graphic Language — For specifying graphic operations. "A Problem Oriented
834. GRAPPLE — GRAPh Processing LanguagE. 1968. "A Directed Graph
835. GRASP/Ada — Graphical Representation of Algorithms, Structures and
836. Green — Cii Honeywell-Bull. A proposed language to meet the DoD Ironman
837. GRG — Computer algebra system for differential geometry, gravitation and
838. GRIND — GRaphical INterpretive Display. Graphical input language for PDP-
839. Groff — GNU's implementation of roff. (See nroff, troff, RUNOFF).
840. GSBL — "GSBL: An Algebraic Specification Language Based on Inheritance", S.
841. GSL — Grenoble System Language. M. Berthaud, IBM, Grenoble. "GSL Language
842. GSPL — Greenberg's System Programming Language. Bernard Greenberg.
843. GTML — ? Mentioned in the documentation for TXL.
844. GVL — Graphical View Language. T.C.N. Graham & J.R. Cordy, Queen's U.
845. GW-BASIC — "Gee Whiz" BASIC. Microsoft's BASIC with graphic extensions.
846. Gypsy — Specification and verification of concurrent systems software.
847. GYVE — OS programming language, highly modular (similar to Modula?) "GYVE,
848. HAL/S — Real-time language used by NASA for onboard shuttle software.
849. HALGOL — Hewlett-Packard. A simple language for communicating with devices
850. HALMAT — Intermediate language used by HAL/S.
851. Haskell — (named for the logician Haskell B. Curry). April 1990. Designed
852. HASL — SASL plus conditional unification. "A Prological Definition of
853. HCLP — Hierarchical CLP. "Constraint Hierarchies and Logic Programming",
854. HCPRVR — "HCPRVR: An Interpreter for Logic Programs", D. Chester in Proc
855. HDFL — Single assignment language. "Methods for Handling Structures in
856. HDM — See SPECIAL.
857. HELP —
858. HEQS — E. Derman. Constraint language for financial modeling. Uses an
859. HERAKLIT — A distributed object-oriented language. "Definition einer
860. Hermes — IBM, June 1990. An imperative, strongly typed process-oriented
861. HIBOL — A variant of DIBOL, used in Infotec computers.
862. High Performance Fortran — Proposed extension to Fortran 90 with additional
863. HiLog — W. Chen et al, Stony Brook, 1989. Logic programming in higher
864. HINT — Hierarchical Information NeTs. For CDC 3600. "HINT: A Graph
865. HLISP — "Monocopy and Associative Algorithms in an Extended Lisp", E. Goto,
866. HLL — A machine-independent high level microprogramming language.
867. HOL — Higher Order Logic. A proof-generating system for higher order logic
868. Honeywell-800 Business Compiler — Another name for FACT. Sammet 1969,
869. HOOK — ? Object Oriented Kernel. Delphia. An object-oriented extension of
870. Hope — ("springs eternal" and so forth.) R.M. Burstall, U Edinburgh 1978.
871. Hope+ — Alvey Flagship project, Imperial College. An extension of Hope
872. Hope+C — Alvey Flagship project, Imperial College. Further evolution of
873. HOS-STPL — Hospital Operating System — STructured Programming Language. A
874. HPcode — Stack-based intermediate language used by HP in many of its
875. HPCode-Plus — Descendant of HPcode with data types, developed to be an ANDF
876. HPF — (see High Performance Fortran).
877. HP-GL — Hewlett-Packard Graphics Language. Vector graphics language used
878. HP-GL/2 — "HP-GL/2 Programmer's Guide", No. 5959-9733, HP. (See PCL.)
879. HPL — Language used in HP9825A/S/T "Desktop Calculators", 1978(?) and
880. HSL-FX — Hierarchical Specification Language — Function Extension.
881. HTML — HyperText Markup Language. Markup language used by the World Wide
882. HTML+ — Successor to HTML, will encode more structure. Under development.
883. HUGO — Geac. A bytecode-interpreted transaction handler.
884. Hybrid — Concurrent object-oriented language. "Active Objects in Hybrid",
885. Hyper-C — HyperParallel Tech, France. Data parallel extension of C, for
886. Hyperscript — Informix. The object-based programming language for Wingz,
887. HyperTalk — Bill Atkinson and Dan Winkler. A verbose semicompiled language
888. HyTime — A hypermedia extension of SGML. "The HyTime Hypermedia/Time-based
889. IAL — International Algebraic Language. Original name of ALGOL 58.
890. IAM — Interactive Algebraic Manipulation. Interactive symbolic math for
891. IBEX — Command language for Honeywell's CP-6 OS.
892. ICES — Integrated Civil Engineering System. Subsystems include COGO,
893. ICETRAN — An extension of FORTRAN IV. Component of ICES. Sammet 1969,
894. ICI — Tim Long. Interactive C Interpreter? Interpreted language, syntax
895. Icon — Griswold, 1970's. A descendant of SNOBOL4 with Pascal-like syntax.
896. Iconicode — 1990-1992. Visual dataflow language, token-based with
897. IC-Prolog — Clark & McCabe, Imperial College 1979. Logic language with
898. IC Prolog ][ — Imperial College. A Prolog with multithreading, TCP
899. Id — Irvine Dataflow. Arvind & Gostelow. Single assignment language, used
900. IDAMS — Pictorial retrieval language, implemented in APL. "Concept of the
901. IDEA — Interactive Data Entry/Access. Data General. A language in which
902. IDEAL — Van Wyk, Stanford 1980. Numerical constraint language for
903. IDL —
904. IDMS — Pictorial query language, an extension of Sequel2. "A Management
905. Id Nouveau — Arvind & Nikhil , LCS
906. IDOL — Icon-Derived Object Language. Object-oriented preprocessor for
907. IDS/I — Integrated Data Store. Extension to COBOL involving "chains"
908. IF1 — Graph language used as an intermediate language for dataflow
909. IF2 — Graph language used by the OSC SISAL compiler, a superset of IF1.
910. IFIP — Subset of ALGOL. Sammet 1969, p.180.
911. IFP — Illinois FP. Arch Robinson. Variant of FP with Algol-like syntax.
912. IFX — "Type Reconstruction with First-Class Polymorphic Values", J. O'Toole
913. IGL — Interactive Graphic Language. Used primarily by Physics Dept at
914. IIS — Idealized Instruction Set. Assembly language for the Flagship
915. IITRAN — Simple PL/I-like language for students, on IBM 360. "The IITRAN
916. ILIAD — Real time language. "On the Design of a Language for Programming
917. ILLIAC — Assembly language for the ILLIAC computer. Listed in CACM
918. ILOC — Rice U. Register-oriented intermediate language targeted to PC/RT.
919. IMP —
920. Ina Jo — [FDM?] "The Ina Jo Specification Language Reference Manual", J.
921. Info BASIC — Variant of Pick BASIC used with PRIME's PRIMOS.
922. INFORM — Early database language, comparable to dBASE II. Intended for
923. Information Algebra — Theoretical formalism for DP, never resulted in a
924. Inglish — English-like language used for Adventure games like "The Hobbit"
925. InnovAda — Object-oriented extension to Ada, said to be LISP-like.
926. Input — See ALPHA.
927. INSIGHT — Simulation modeling language especially for health care problems.
928. INTCODE — A low-level interpreted language used in bootstrapping the BCPL
929. INTELLECT — Larry Harris, 1977. A query language, close to natural
930. INTERACTIVE — Network simulation language. "Design and Implementation of a
931. INTERCAL — (Allegedly stands for "Compiler Language With No Pronounceable
932. INTERCOM — Assembly language for the G-15. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May
933. Interlisp — Descendant of BBN-Lisp. Once Interlisp was one of two main
934. Intermediate Programming Language — Arthur W. Burks. A very early attempt
935. Interpress — Xerox. Interpretive FORTH-like graphics language, possibly
936. Iota — Specification language. "The Iota Programming System", R. Nakajima
937. IPL — Information Processing Language. Allen Newell, J.C. Shaw, H. Simon,
938. IPS — Threaded language. "IPS, An Unorthodox High Level Language", K.
939. IQ — Pictorial query language, implemented in Ratfor. "Structured
940. IRDATA — Industrial Robot DATA. A standardized robot control code.
941. IRL — Industrial Robot Language. A high-level language for programming
942. Ironman — HOLWG, DoD, Jan 1977, revised Jul 1977. Fourth of the series of
943. Isabelle-92 — A generic theorem prover, supporting a wide variety of
944. ISBL — Mathematical query language.
945. ISETL — Interactive SETL. Gary Levin , Clarkson
946. ISIS —
947. ISL — Interface Specification Language. Xerox PARC. Interface description
948. ISLisp — International Standard LISP, ISO WG 16, draft Dec 1992. An
949. ISP — Instruction Set Processor. A family of languages for describing the
950. ISPL — Instruction Set Processor Language. ca 1971. Original ISP
951. ISPS — Barbacci, Carnegie-Mellon 1979. Instruction Set Processor
952. ISWIM — If You See What I Mean. Landin 1966. ISWIM is purely functional,
953. IT — Internal Translator. A.J. Perlis et al, Carnegie Tech ca 1957. Early
954. Ivan — A Diana-like language making up part of VHDL. "VHDL — The Designer
955. Iverson's Language — APL, which went unnamed for many years. Sammet 1969,
956. IVTRAN — 1966. Parallel FORTRAN for the Illiac IV.
957. J — Derivative and redesign of APL. Purely functional with lexical scope
958. J3 — Dialect of JOVIAL. "Military Standard JOVIAL (J3)", MIL-STD-1588
959. J73 — Yep, another JOVIAL dialect. "Military Standard JOVIAL (J73)",
960. JACAL — JAffer's CAnonical ALgebra. A. Jaffer.
961. Jade —
962. JaM — John and Martin. J. Warnock & M. Newell, PARC 1978. Interpretive
963. Janus —
964. JAZ — Early system on LGP-30. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
965. JCL — Job Control Language. Batch language on IBM OS/360 systems.
966. JCS-13 — Early system on IBM 701. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
967. JEAN — A dialect of JOSS.
968. JOSS — JOHNNIAC Open Shop System. Charles L. Baker, RAND 1964. An early
969. Jossle — [?] Type checked language with separate compilation using a
970. JOVIAL — Jule's Own Version of IAL. Jules I. Schwartz 1959-1960. Based on
971. Joyce — Brinch Hansen. Distributed language based on Pascal and CSP.
972. JPL — JAM Programming Language. Imperative string-based language, part of
973. JPLDIS — Jet Propulsion Laboratory Display Information System. Jack
974. JS — Dialect of JOVIAL. Sammet 1969, p.639.
975. JTS — Simple dialect of JOVIAL. Sammet 1969, p.528.
976. Juno — Numerical constraint-oriented language for graphics applications.
977. Jym — Patrick Bellot, France. A predecessor to Graal.
978. K5 — Early system on Larc computer. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
979. Kaleidoscope — Freeman-Benson , U Washington and
980. Kali — Data parallel language. "Supporting Shared Data Structures on
981. KAP — Kernel Andorra Prolog. "Kernel Andorra Prolog and its Computation
982. Karel — Language featured in Karel the Robot: A Gentle Introduction to
983. KBMS — Expert system.
984. KCL — Kyoto Common LISP. Taiichi Yuasa and Masami Hagiya, 1984. Compiles
985. K-code. Language recognized by the K-machine, a virtual machine with an
986. KEE — Knowledge Engineering Environment. Frame-based expert system.
987. Kernel Parlog — Modeless intermediate language for Parlog compilation.
988. Kevo — A. Taivalsaari . Prototype-based object-oriented
989. KFX — Kernel language of FX-87. "Polymorphic Effect Systems", J.M.
990. Kid — Kernel language for Id. A refinement of P-TAC, used as an
991. KISS — Early system on IBM 650. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
992. KL0 — Sequential logic language based on Prolog, for the ICOT project,
993. KL1 — Kernel Language 1. An experimental AND-parallel version of KL0 for
994. Klerer-May System — Columbia U. Early system with special math symbols.
995. KL-ONE — Frame language. "An Overview of the KL-ONE Knowledge
996. KLS — Knotted List Structures. List-processing language, a predecessor of
997. KMODEL — An ancestor of Model-K. "Preliminary Results on the BEHAVIOR
998. KOMPILER — Early system on IBM 701. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
999. KRC — Kent Recursive Calculator. Turner 1981. Lazy functional language
1000. KRL — Knowledge Representation Language. A frame-based language. "An
1001. KRS — Frame-based language built on Common LISP.
1002. KRYPTON — Frame language. "An Essential Hybrid Reasoning System: Knowledge
1003. ksh — Korn Shell command interpreter for Unix.
1004. L0 — Tech U Munich. Low level language, typed and with ususal flow
1005. L6 — Bell Telephone Laboratories Low-Level Linked List Language. Ken
1006. Lace — Language for Assembling Classes in Eiffel. Specifies how to
1007. LADE — Compiler-compiler language?
1008. LADY — "Key Concepts in the INCAS Multicomputer Project", J. Nehmer et al
1009. Lakota — Scripting language, extends existing OS commands.
1010. LAMBDA — A version of typed lambda calculus, used to describe semantic
1011. lambda-Prolog — An extension of standard Prolog, in which terms are typed
1012. LAMINA — Concurrent object-oriented language. "Experiments with a
1013. Language H — NCR. Early business-oriented language.
1014. Laning and Zierler — J.H. Laning Jr and N. Zierler, 1953-1954. Possibly
1015. LAP — LISP Assembly Program. Assembly language embedded into early LISP.
1016. LAP4 — Early assembly language for Linc-8 machine.
1017. LAPSE — Single assignment language for the Manchester dataflow machine. "A
1018. Larch — John Guttag and Jim Horning . The Larch
1019. Larch/Ada — Used in the Penelope verification system, to provide semantics
1020. Larch/CLU — Larch specification language for CLU. Used in Abstraction and
1021. LaTeX — see TeX.
1022. LAU — Langage a Assignation Unique. Single assignment language for the LAU
1023. LAURE — A language for knowledge representation combining object
1024. LAVA — A language for VLSI that deals with "sticks", i.e. wires represented
1025. LAX — LAnguage eXample. Toy language used to illustrate problems in
1026. LCC — Language for Conversational Computing. CMU 1960's. Similar to JOSS,
1027. LCL —
1028. LCS — Language for Communicating Systems. Bernard Barthomieu. A
1029. LDL — "LDL: A Logic-Based Data-Language", S. Tsur et al, Proc VLDB 1986,
1030. LDL1 — Successor of LDL. "Sets and Negation in a Logic Database Language",
1031. LDT — Logic Design Translator. Computer system design analysis. Sammet
1032. LE/1 — Langage External. "An Evaluation of the LE/1 Network Command
1033. LEAF —
1034. Lean — U Nijmegen and U East Anglia. An experimental language based on
1035. LEAP — Language for the Expression of Associative Procedures. ALGOL-based
1036. LECOM — Version of COMIT on GE 225 ca. 1966. Sammet 1969, p.419.
1037. Leda — Tim Budd , Oregon State U, 1990-1993.
1038. LeFun — MCC, Austin. Integration of logic and functional programming.
1039. Legion — Distributed language.
1040. LEGOL — "Application of MP/3 to the Design and Implementation of LEGOL, A
1041. Le-Lisp — Jerome Chailloux and Emmanuel St James, INRIA, France. A LISP
1042. Leo — General-purpose systems language, syntactically like Pascal and Y,
1043. Lex —
1044. LG — Simple language for analytic geometry, with graphic output. "LG: A
1045. LGDF — Large-Grain DataFlow. "A Large-grain Data Flow Scheduler for
1046. LGEN — Bell Labs. A logic language for VLSI implementation. S.C. Johnson,
1047. LGN — Linear Graph Notation. A linearized representation of TCOL trees.
1048. Liana — 1991. Similar to C++, aimed at Windows applications. No pointers,
1049. LIDO — Input language for the attribute evaluator generator LIGA (a
1050. LiE — Symbolic math aimed at Lie groups. "LiE, a Package for Lie Group
1051. LIFE — Logic of Inheritance, Functions and Equations. Hassan Ait-Kacy
1052. Lila — Patrick Salle'. A small assembly-like
1053. LIMDEP — Linear programming language used by economists.
1054. LIMP — "Messages in Typed Languages", J. Hunt et al, SIGPLAN Notices
1055. Linc — Burroughs/Unisys 4GL. Designed in New Zealand.
1056. Lincoln Reckoner — ca 1965. Interactive math including matrix operations,
1057. Linda — Yale. A "coordination language", providing a model for concurrency
1058. LindaLISP — Yep, you guessed it.
1059. Lingo — An animation scripting language. MacroMind Director V3.0
1060. LINGOL — LINguistics Oriented Language. Natural language processing. "A
1061. LIPL — Linear IPL. A linearized (i.e. horizontal format) version of IPL-V.
1062. LIS — Langage Implementation Systeme. Ichbiah, 1973. A predecessor of
1063. LISA — Statistical data analysis. Similar to S.
1064. LISP — LISt Processing. John McCarthy et al, MIT
1065. LISP 2 — LISP 1.5 with an ALGOL60-like surface syntax. Also optional type
1066. LISP70 — LISP dialect, a descendant of MLISP and MLISP2. Also known as
1067. LISP A — "LISP A: A LISP-like System for Incremental Computing", E.J.
1068. Lispkit Lisp — Purely functional version of LISP. "Functional Programming,
1069. Lisp-Linda — P. Dourish, U Edinburgh 1988.
1070. LISP Machine LISP — An extension of Maclisp, now called Zetalisp.
1071. Lisptalk — "Concurrent Programming Language Lisptalk", C. Li, SIGPLAN
1072. LITHE — Object-oriented with extensible syntax. "LITHE: A Language
1073. LITTLE — Typeless language used to produce machine-independent software.
1074. Little Smalltalk — A line-oriented near-subset of Smalltalk-80. "A Little
1075. LLM3 — J. Chailloux. Assembly language for a virtual machine, the
1076. LM3 — The Larch interface language for Modula-3. (See Larch). "LM3: A
1077. LML —
1078. LNF — "A Fully Lazy Higher Order Purely Functional Programming Language
1079. L&O — Logic and Objects. Implemented as a front end for IC Prolog. "Logic
1080. LO — Linear Objects. Concurrent logic programming language based on
1081. {log} — "{log}: A Logic Programming Language with Finite Sets", A Dovier et
1082. LogC — C extension ncorporating rule-oriented programming, for AI
1083. Logic Design Language — Language for computer design. "A System
1084. LOGIN — Integration of logic programming and inheritance. "LOGIN: A Logic
1085. LOGLAN — Inst Informatics, Warsaw U. Object-oriented. Not to be confused
1086. LOGLISP — Robertson & Sibert, Syracuse 1980. A Prolog-like language called
1087. LOGO — Developed 1966-1968 by a group at Bolt, Beranek & Newman headed by
1088. LOGOL — Strings are stored on cyclic lists or 'tapes', which are operated
1089. LOLITA — Language for the On-Line Investigation and Transformation of
1090. Lolli — (named for the "lollipop" operator "-o") Based on linear logic, in
1091. LOM — Toulouse, early 1980's. Language for data processing.
1092. LOOK — Specification language. "A Look at Algebraic Specifications", S.N.
1093. LOOKS —
1094. LOOPN — U Tasmania. An object-oriented language for simulation of Petri
1095. LOOPS — Lisp Object-Oriented Programming System. Xerox's object-oriented
1096. LOP — Language based on first-order logic. "SETHEO — A High-Perormance
1097. Lore —
1098. LOTIS — LOgic, TIming, Sequencing. Describes a computer via its data flow.
1099. LOTOS — Specification language based on temporal ordering. "The Formal
1100. Lout — J. Kingson Embedded language for the lout
1101. Low-Ada — An intermediate language for Ada, intended for formal
1102. LOWL — Abstract machine for bootstrapping ML/1. Mentioned in Machine
1103. LPC — ca 1988. Variant of C used to program the LP MUDs, programmable
1104. LPG —
1105. LPL — List Programming Language. LISP-like language with ALGOL-like
1106. LPS — Sets with restricted universal quantifiers. "Logic Programming with
1107. LRLTRAN — Lawrence Radiation Laboratory TRANslator. FORTRAN extension with
1108. LSL —
1109. LSYD — Language for SYstems Development. PL/I-like language with data
1110. LT-2 — Early system on IBM 701. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
1111. LTR — Langage Temps-Reel. A French predecessor to Ada, Modula-like with a
1112. LTR2 —
1113. LTR3 — Parayre, France. Saw wide use by French military and avionics.
1114. Lua — TeCGraf, Pontifical Cath U Rio de Janeiro (PUC/Rio), 1994. Pascal-
1115. LUCID —
1116. Lucinda — Combines Russell-like polymorphism with Linda-like concurrency.
1117. Lucy — Distributed constraint programming language. An actor subset of
1118. LUKKO — Heinanen, 1983. An object-oriented microprogramming language,
1119. LUSTRE — Real-time dataflow language for synchronous systems, especially
1120. LYaPAS — (Russian acronym for "Logical Language for the Representation of
1121. LYNX — U Wisc 1984. Language for large distributed networks, using remote
1122. LYRIC — Language for Your Remote Instruction by Computer. CAI language
1123. M —
1124. M3 — Macro processor, forerunner of M4, for the AP-3 mini.
1125. M4 — Macro processor for Unix and GCOS. "The M4 Macro Processor",
1126. M5 — A. Dain, U Cincinnati, 1992. Macro processor, a generalization of M4.
1127. M6 — Yet another macro processor. Mentioned in Don Libes, "Life with
1128. MAC — Early system on Ferranti Mercury. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
1129. Mac-1 — Assembly language used in Structured Computer Organization, A.S.
1130. MAC — ca 1959. Mercury Autocode 2. One of the first extensible languages,
1131. MAC-360 — ca. 1967. Solving numerical problems using equation-like input.
1132. Macaulay — Mike Stillman and Dave Bayer
1133. MACE — Concurrent object-oriented language.[?]
1134. Machiavelli — Peter Buneman & Atsushi Ohori, U Pennsylvania, 1989. An
1135. MACL — Macintosh Allegro CL. Former name of MCL.
1136. MacLisp — MIT AI Lab, late 1960's. Later used by Project MAC, Mathlab, and
1137. MACRO —
1138. Macro SAP — Macro processing modification of SAP. D.E. Eastwood and D.M.
1139. MACSYMA — Project MAC's SYmbolic MAnipulator. Joel Moses
1140. MAD —
1141. Mad/1 — A later, much enhanced version of MAD, for the IBM 360. Michigan's
1142. MADCAP — Math and set problems, for the Maniac II and CDC 6600. "MADCAP —
1143. MADTRAN — Early preprocessor that translated FORTRAN to MAD, for gain in
1144. MAGIC — Early system on Midac computer. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
1145. Magic Paper — Early interactive symbolic math system. Sammet 1969, p.510.
1146. Magma2 — Language that allows programmability of the control environment,
1147. MagmaLISP — Predecessor of Magma2. "MagmaLISP: A Machine Language for
1148. MAGNUM — Tymshare Inc, late 70's. Database language for DEC-10's, used
1149. Magritte — J. Gosling. Constraint language for interactive graphical
1150. MAINSAIL — MAchine INdependent SAIL. From XIDAK, Palo Alto CA, (415) 855-
1151. Maisie — A C extension with concurrency via asynchronous typed message
1152. Make — Language for the Unix file maintenance utility Make. "Make — A
1153. MAL — Micro Assembly Language — Microprogramming language with high-level
1154. MALPAS IL — TA Consultancy Services. A strongly typed, block-structured
1155. Manchester Autocode — Predecessor of Mercury Autocode. "The Programming
1156. Mandala — ICOT, Japan. A system based on Concurrent Prolog. "Mandala: A
1157. MAO — Early symbolic math system. A. Rom, Celest Mech 1:309-319 (1969).
1158. MAP — Mathematical Analysis without Programming. On-line system under CTSS
1159. Maple — B. Char, K. Geddes, G. Gonnet, M. Monagan & S. Watt, U Waterloo,
1160. MARBLE — A Pascal-like microprogramming language. "MARBLE: A High Level
1161. Maril — Machine description language used by the Marion code generator.
1162. Markov — [?]
1163. Marseille Prolog — One of the two main dialects of Prolog, the other being
1164. MARSYAS — MARshall SYstem for Aerospace Simulation. Simulation of large
1165. MARVIN — U Dortmund, 1984. Applicative language based on Modula-2,
1166. Mary — Mark Rain. Machine-oriented language, a supeset of ALGOL68,
1167. MAS — Modula-2 Algebra System. "Modula-2 Algebra System", H. Kredel, Proc
1168. MASM — Microsoft Assembler for MS-DOS.
1169. Massey Hope — Massey U, NZ. Refinement of Hope+C with improved syntax, and
1170. Matchmaker — A language for specifying and automating the generation of
1171. Mathcad — Symbolic math environment.
1172. Mathematica — (name suggested by Steve Jobs). Wolfram Research, 1988.
1173. MATHLAB — Symbolic math system, MITRE, 1964. Later version: MATHLAB 68
1174. MATH-MATIC or MATHMATIC — Alternate name for AT-3. Early, pre-FORTRAN
1175. Matrix Compiler — Early matrix computations on UNIVAC. Sammet 1969, p.642.
1176. MATRIX MATH — Early system on UNIVAC I or II. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May
1177. mawk — Mike Brennan 1991. An implementation of
1178. MAXIMOP — "Job Control Languages: MAXIMOP and CAFE", J. Brandon, Proc BCS
1179. MBASIC — Microsoft BASIC.
1180. MC — Extension of C with modules. Symbols in other modules can be
1181. McG360 — Interactive, similar to PAL[5], for IBM 360. "McG360 Programmer's
1182. MCL — Macintosh Common LISP. (Previously MACL.)
1183. M-Code —
1184. 1) Intermediate code produced by the original ETH Modula-2 compiler.
1185. 2) Intermediate language for an SECD-like machine, used by the Concert
1186. MCS — Meta Class System. A portable object-oriented extension of Common
1187. MDL — (originally "Muddle"). C. Reeve, C. Hewitt & G. Sussman, Dynamic
1188. me too — Peter Henderson, 1984. Functional language for executable
1189. MELD — Concurrent, object-oriented, dataflow, modular and fault-tolerant!
1190. MeldC — Columbia U, 1990. A C-based concurrent object-oriented
1191. Melinda — "Melinda: Linda with Multiple Tuple Spaces", S. Hupfer,
1192. Mentat — U Virginia. Object-oriented distributed language, an extension of
1193. MENTOR — CAI language. "Computer Systems for Teaching Complex Concepts",
1194. MENYMA/S — "A Message Oriented Language for System Applications", A. Koch
1195. Mercury Autocode — Autocode for the Ferranti Mercury machine. (See
1196. MEROON — An object-oriented system built on Scheme.
1197. Mesa — Xerox PARC, 1977. System and application programming for
1198. META — CDC, ca 1977. Assembly language for the CYBER 200. CDC Pub
1199. META 5 — Early syntax-directed compiler-compiler, used for translating one
1200. Meta-II — An early compiler-compiler. "Meta-II: a Syntax Oriented Compiler
1201. Meta-IV — See VDM-SL.
1202. Meta-Crystal — A language for transformations of Crystal programs.
1203. METAFONT — Knuth. A system for the design of raster-based alphabets.
1204. METAL —
1205. Meta-Vlisp — E. St.James France. A Lisp dialect with
1206. Met-English — Metropolitan Life, early 60's. Fortran-like, with support
1207. METEOR — A version of COMIT with Lisp-like syntax, written in MIT Lisp 1.5
1208. Methods — Digitalk, ca 1985. Line-oriented Smalltalk for PC's, predecessor
1209. MHDL —
1210. Mic-1, Mic-2 — Microprogramming languages, used in Structured Computer
1211. microAPL — An APL-like microprogramming language. "High Level
1212. microPLANNER — G.J. Sussman et al, MIT. Subset of PLANNER, implemented in
1213. microTAL — A high level machine dependent microprogramming language based
1214. MIDAS — Digital simulation language. Sammet 1969, p.627.
1215. MIDL — MicroInstruction Description Language. "MIDL — A Microinstruction
1216. MIIS — ("Meese"). Interpreted. One-letter keywords. Similar to MUMPS?
1217. MIKE — Micro Interpreter for Knowledge Engineering. Expert system shell
1218. MILITRAN — Sys Res Group, ONR 1964. Discrete simulation for military
1219. MIMIC — J.H. Andrews, NIH 1967. Early language for solving engineering
1220. MIMOLA — Operational hardware specification language. "A Retargetable
1221. Mini-ML — "A Simple Applicative Language: Mini-ML", D. Clement et al, Proc
1222. Mini PL/I — A commercial PL/I subset for the Olivetti Audit 7 minicomputer.
1223. MINITAB II — Interactive solution of small statistical problems. "MINITAB
1224. MINT — Mint Is Not TRAC. Version of TRAC used as the extension language in
1225. Miracula — Stefan Kahrs , LFCS. An implementation of a
1226. Miranda — (latin for "admirable", also the heroine of Shakespeare's
1227. MIRFAC — Mathematics in Recognizable Form Automatically Compiled. Early
1228. MISHAP — Early system on IBM 1103 or 1103A. Listed in CACM 2(5):16, (May
1229. MITILAC — Early system on IBM 650. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
1230. MIXAL — MIX Assembly Language. Assembly language for Knuth's hypothetical
1231. MJS — Early system on UNIVAC I or II. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
1232. ML —
1233. ML-2000 — Dialect of ML, an extension and redesign of Standard ML. Under
1234. MLAB — Modeling LABoratory. Interactive mathematical modeling. "MLAB, An
1235. ML/I — Early macro translating system. P.J. Brown, CACM 10(10):618-623,
1236. MLISP —
1237. ML-Linda — U Edinburgh, under development.
1238. ML Threads — Greg Morrisett . SML/NJ with mutual
1239. Mma — R. Fateman, 1991. A fast Mathematica-like system, in Allegro CL.
1240. MML — Human-Machine Language. CCITT. Language for telecommunications
1241. MOBSSL-UAF — Merritt and Miller's Own Block-Structured Simulation
1242. Mock Lisp — The LISP used by the Gosling Emacs editor.
1243. MODCAL — Version of HP-PASCAL enhanced with system programming constructs,
1244. Mode — Object-oriented. "The Programming Language Mode: Language
1245. MODEF — Pascal-like language with polymorphism and data abstraction.
1246. MODEL — Pascal-like language with extensions for large-scale system
1247. MODSIM II — 1986. Object-oriented modular language for discrete
1248. Modula — MODUlar LAnguage. Wirth, 1977. Predecessor of Modula-2, more
1249. Modula-2 — Wirth, ETH 1978. Developed as the system language for the
1250. Modula-2* — M. Philippsen , U Karlsruhe. Modula-2
1251. Modula-2+ — P. Rovner et al, DEC SRC, Palo Alto CA, 1984. Exceptions and
1252. Modula-3 — L. Cardelli et al, DEC and Olivetti, 1988. A descendant of
1253. Modula-3* — Incoprporation of Modula-2* ideas into Modula-3. "Modula-3*:
1254. Modula-3pi — Machine-independent intermediate language for compilation of
1255. Modula-P — "Modula-P: A Language for Parallel Programming Definition and
1256. Modula-Prolog — Adds a Prolog layer to Modula-2. "Modula-Prolog: A
1257. Modula/R — Modula with relational database constructs added. LIDAS Group
1258. Modular C — Preprocessor-based extension to C allowing modules. Article by
1259. Modular Prolog — An extension of SB-Prolog (version 3.1) extended with ML-
1260. Modulex — Based on Modula-2. Mentioned by M.P. Atkinson & J.W. Schmidt in
1261. Mona — An experimental dialect of Oberon. Allows data types to be
1262. MooZ — Object-oriented extension of Z. "Object Orientation in Z", S.
1263. MOPS — Michael Hore. A derivative of Neon. Multiple inheritance.
1264. MORAL — Mentioned in "An Overview of Ada", J.G.P. Barnes, Soft Prac & Exp
1265. MORTRAN — A public domain FORTRAN preprocessor for structured programming.
1266. Mouse — Peter Grogono, 1975. A mighty small macro language. "Mouse, A
1267. Moxie — Language for real-time computer music synthesis, written in XPL.
1268. MP-1 — Assembly language for the MasPar machine.
1269. MPGL — Micro-Program Generating Language. A retargetable register transfer
1270. MPL —
1271. MPL II — Burroughs VMS MPL II Language Reference Manual.
1272. MPPL — Early possible name for PL/I. Sammet 1969, p.542.
1273. M-Prolog —
1274. MPS III — Solving matrices and producing reports. "MPS III DATAFORM User
1275. MPSX — Mathematical Programming System Extended. Solution strategy for
1276. MRS — An integration of logic programming into LISP. "A Modifiable
1277. MSG.84 — "Analysis and Design in MSG.84: Formalizing Functional
1278. MUCAL — Language for playing music on PDP-8 [?]
1279. Muddle — Original name of MDL.
1280. muFP — Functional language for hardware design, predecessor to Ruby[1].
1281. Mul-T — An implementation of Multilisp built on T, for the Encore Multimax.
1282. multiC — Wavetracer. A data-parallel version of C.
1283. MultiLisp — Parallel extension of Scheme, with explicit concurrency. The
1284. Multi-Pascal — Extension of Pascal-S with multiprocessing features. Used
1285. MultiScheme — An implementation of Multilisp built on MIT's C-Scheme, for
1286. MUMPS — Massachusetts General Hospital Utility Multi-Programming System. A
1287. MU-Prolog — L. Naish, U Melbourne 1982. Prolog with 'wait' declarations
1288. MuSimp — LISP variant used as the programming language for the PC symbolic
1289. Muse — OR-parallel logic programming.
1290. Music — Bell Labs, 60's. A series of early languages for musical sound
1291. MUSL — Manchester University Systems Language.
1292. MYSTIC — Early system on IBM 704, IBM 650, IBM 1103 and 1103A. Listed in
1293. NASTRAN — NAsa STRess ANalysis program. Large stress analysis problems.
1294. Napier — Atkinson & Morrison, St Andrews U; design began ca. 1985, first
1295. NAPLPS — North American Presentation-Level-Protocol Syntax. Format for
1296. NAPSS — Numerical Analysis Problem Solving System. Purdue ca. 1965.
1297. NASTRAN — Engineering language, listed [?] 1976.
1298. NATURAL — Software AG, Germany. Integrated 4GL used by the database system
1299. Natural English — Used to mean programming in normal, spoken English.
1300. Nawk — New AWK. AT&T. Pattern scanning and processing language. An
1301. NB — ("New B"?) Original name of C.
1302. NDL- Network Definition Language. Used to program the DCP (Data
1303. Nebula — ICL. Early business-oriented language for Ferranti Orion
1304. NELIAC — Navy Electronics Laboratory International ALGOL Compiler. 1958-
1305. Neon — Charles Duff. An object-oriented extension of FORTH, for the Mac.
1306. NERECO — NEtwork REmote COmmunications. CSP with extensions to allow
1307. NESL — Fine-grained, functional, data-parallel language with nested data
1308. NETL — Semantic network language, for connectionist architectures. "NETL:
1309. New Flavors — Symbolics. An object-oriented LISP, successor to Flavors,
1310. NEWP — NEW Programming language. Replaced ESPOL on Burroughs Large System.
1311. NewsClip — Looking Glass Software. Very high level language for writing
1312. Newspeak —
1313. Newsqueak — Concurrent applicative language with synchronous channels.
1314. Newton — (named after Isaac Newton (1642-1727)). Rapin et al, Swiss
1315. Nexpert Object — Expert system.
1316. NFQL — "NFQL: The Natural Forms Query Language", D. Embley, Trans Database
1317. NGL — Dialect of IGL.
1318. NIAL — Nested Interactive Array Language. Queen's U, Canada. High-level
1319. NICOL I —
1320. NIKL — Frame language. "Recent Developments in NIKL", T.R. Kaczmarek et
1321. NIL —
1322. NJCL — Network Job Control Language. "NJCL — A Network Job Control
1323. nML — Specification language for instruction sets, based on attribute
1324. NODAL — Interpreted language implemented on Norsk Data's NORD-10 computers.
1325. Noddy — A simple (hence the name) language to handle text and interaction
1326. NOMAD — Database language. "NOMAD Reference Manual", Form 1004, National
1327. Nonpareil — One of five pedagogical languages based on Markov algorithms,
1328. NORC COMPILER — Early system on NORC machine. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May
1329. NORD PL — Intermediate language for Norsk Data computers. Sintran III (OS
1330. Nother — Parallel symbolic math.
1331. NPL —
1332. NPPL — Network Picture Processing Language. Interactive language for
1333. N-Prolog — Prolog extended with explicit negation. Dov Gabbay, J Logic
1334. Nqthm — Language[?] used in the Boyer-Moore theorem prover. "Proving
1335. Nroff — Text formatting language/interpreter, based on Unix roff. (See
1336. NUCLEOL — List processing language, influenced by EOL. J. Nievergelt,
1337. Nuprl — (pronounced "new pearl") Nearly Ultimate PRL. Interactive
1338. NU-Prolog — L. Naish, U Melbourne. A Prolog with 'when' declarations, the
1339. NYAP — Early system on IBM 704. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
1340. NYU OMNIFAX — Early system on UNIVAC I or II. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May
1341. O2 — ("Object-Oriented"). Object-oriented database language used in the
1342. Oaklisp — K. Lang and B. Perlmutter. A portable object-oriented Scheme,
1343. OBE — Office By Example. Moshe Zloof, IBM, early 1980's. Sequel to QBE,
1344. Oberon — Wirth, 1988. A descendant of Modula-2 eliminating many things:
1345. Oberon-2 — H. Moessenboeck, 1991. A superset of Oberon-1 to include
1346. Oberon-V — (formerly Seneca). R. Griesemer, 1990. Descendant of Oberon
1347. OBJ — Joseph Goguen 1976. A family of declarative "ultra high level"
1348. OBJ2 — Clear-like parametrized modules. A functional system based on
1349. OBJ3 — SRI. Based on order-sorted rewriting. Agent-oriented.
1350. Object CHILL — "Object CHILL — An Object Oriented Language for Systems
1351. Object Lisp — LMI. An object-oriented Lisp. "ObjectLISP User Manual", G.
1352. ObjectLOGO — A variant of LOGO with object-oriented extensions. Lexical
1353. Object Oberon — H. Moessenboeck & J. Templ, 1989. Adds classes and methods
1354. Object-CHILL — Proposed object-oriented extension of CHILL. G. Diesl et
1355. Object-COBOL — Micro Focus. Largely compatible, but a subset of, the
1356. Object-Oriented Turing — R.C. Holt , U Toronto,
1357. ObjectPAL — Object-oriented database language, part of Borland's MS-Windows
1358. Object Pascal — Developed jointly by Apple Computer and Niklaus Wirth. An
1359. Object-Z — U Queensland. "The Object-Z Specification Language: Version 1",
1360. Objective C — Brad Cox, Productivity Products. An object-oriented superset
1361. Objlog — CNRS, Marseille. Frame-based language combining objects and
1362. ObjVlisp — 1984. An object-oriented extension of Vlisp. Reflective
1363. ObjVProlog — Logic programming and object-orientation, an adaptation of the
1364. Obliq — Luca Cardelli, 1993. A distributed object-oriented scripting
1365. Oblog — Object-oriented extension to Prolog. Small, portable.
1366. OBSCURE — "A Formal Description of the Specification Language OBSCURE", J.
1367. Oc — ("Oh see!") Parallel logic language. "Self-Description of Oc and its
1368. OCAL — On-Line Cryptanalytic Aid Language. "OCAS: On-line Cryptanalytic
1369. occam — (named for the English philosopher William of Occam (1300-1349))
1370. occam 2 — 1987. An extension of occam1. Occam 2 adds floating point,
1371. occam 3 — under development
1372. OCL — Operator Control Language. Batch language for the IBM System/36,
1373. OCODE — Assembly language for a stack-based virtual machine, used as the
1374. Octave — High-level language primarily for numerical computations. Real
1375. odl — Fine-grained active object oriented design/programming language.
1376. OIL —
1377. OISC — One Instruction Set Computer. Assembly language for a machine based
1378. OLC — On-Line Computer system. UCSB ca. 1966. Predecessor of Culler-Fried
1379. OLDAS — On-line Digital Analog Simulator. Interactive version of MIMIC,
1380. OLGA — Ouf! un Langage pour les Grammaires Attribuees. Inria, 1985.
1381. Omega — Prototype-based object-oriented language. Austria. "Type-Safe
1382. OMNICODE — Thompson, 1956. Ran on IBM 650. Sammet 1969, p.5.
1383. OMNIFAX — Alternate name for NYU OMNIFAX? Early system on UNIVAC I or II.
1384. OMNITAB — Statistical analysis and desk calculator. "OMNITAB II User's
1385. Ondine — "Concurrency Introduction to an Object-Oriented Language System
1386. Ontic — Object-oriented language for an inference system. LISP-like
1387. OO-CHILL — Proposed object-oriented extension to CHILL. A. Scortese, "OO-
1388. OOF — Object-Oriented Fortran. Data items can be grouped into objects,
1389. OOPS — "OOPS: A Knowledge Representation Language", D. Vermeir, Proc 19th
1390. OOT — Object-oriented Turing.
1391. OOZE — Object oriented extension of Z. "Object Orientation in Z", S.
1392. OPAL-0 — Predecessor of OPAL[5].
1393. OPAL —
1394. O-plan — Distributed language.
1395. OPS —
1396. OPS5 — Charles L. Forgy. 1977 version of OPS[2], publicly available from
1397. OPTRAN — R. Wilhelm, U Saarlandes, early 1980's. Specification language
1398. Orca — Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, 1986. Similar to Modula-2, but with
1399. OREGANO — "On the Design and Specification of the Programming Language
1400. Orient84/K — Y. Ishikawa, Keio U, Yokohama. "A Concurrent Object-Oriented
1401. ORTHOCARTAN — A. Krasinski, Warsaw, early 80's. Symbolic math, especially
1402. Orwell — Lazy functional language, Miranda-like. List comprehensions and
1403. OSCAR —
1404. O'small — Small object-oriented language intended for teaching.
1405. OSQL — Object-oriented Structured Query Language. Functional language,
1406. OSSL — Operating Systems Simulation Language. "OSSL — A Specialized
1407. Ottawa Euclid — Variant of Euclid.
1408. OWHY — Early functional language? "A Type-Theoretical Alternative to CUCH,
1409. OWL — Original name of Trellis.
1410. Ox — Language for specification of attribute grammars. "User Manual for
1411. Oz — U Saarbrucken. Object-oriented concurrent constraint language. Based
1412. P+ — "Experience with Remote Procedure Calls in a Real-Time Control
1413. P4 — Rusty Lusk . A macro/subroutine package for
1414. PABC — Intermediate language recognized by the Parallel ABC machine, used
1415. PACT I — Early system on IBM 701. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
1416. PACTOLUS — Digital simulation. Sammet 1969, p.627.
1417. Paddle — Language for transformations leading from specification to
1418. PAF — Programmation Auomatique des Formules. Dmitri Starynkevitch, 1957.
1419. PAGE — Typesetting language. "Computer Composition Using PAGE-1", J.L.
1420. PaiLisp — Parallel Lisp built on Scheme. 1986. "A Parallel Lisp Language
1421. PAISley — Bell Labs. Operational specification language. "An Operational
1422. PAL —
1423. Pam — Toy ALGOL-like language used in "Formal Specification of Programming
1424. Pandora — Parlog extended to allow "don't-know" non-determinism. "Pandora:
1425. PANON — A family of pattern-directed string processing languages based on
1426. Paragon — Mark Sherman. IEEE Software (Nov 1991). [?]
1427. Paralation — PARALlel reLATION. Sabot, MIT 1987. A framework for parallel
1428. Paralation LISP — Embeds the paralation model in Common LISP. Available
1429. Paralation C — Paralation embedded in C. Under development.
1430. ParAlfl — Hudak, Yale. Parallel functional language, a superset of Alfl.
1431. Parallaxis — U Stuttgart. Data-parallel (SIMD) language, based on Modula-
1432. Parallel C — Never implemented, but influenced the design of C*.
1433. Parallel FORTH — For the MPP.
1434. Parallel Pascal — Data-parallel language, similar to Actus and Glypnir.
1435. Parallel SML — "Parallel SML: A Functional Language and its Implementation
1436. Parasol — Parallel Systems Object Language. Object-oriented, supports
1437. Pari — Symbolic math, especially number theory. Version 1.37 for Unix,
1438. Paris — PARallel Instruction Set. Low-level language for the Connection
1439. Parlance — Concurrent language. "Parallel Processing Structures:
1440. Parlog — Clark & Gregory, Imperial College 1983. An AND-parallel Prolog,
1441. Parlog++ — Andrew Davison , then Imperial College now U
1442. PARMACS — Argonne Natl Lab. The "Argonne macros". A package of macros
1443. ParMod — "Parallel Programming with ParMod", S. Eichholz, Proc 1987 Intl
1444. PARSEC — Extensible language with PL/I-like syntax, derived from PROTEUS.
1445. Parsley — Barber, Summit Software. A Pascal extension for construction of
1446. PARTS — Digitalk. Visual language for OS/2 2.0.
1447. PARULEL — "The PARULEL Parallel Rule Language", S. Stolfo et al, Proc 1991
1448. Pascal — (named for the French mathematician Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)) N.
1449. Pascal++ — ISO, 1994. An extension of Extended Pascal, inspired by Pascal
1450. Pascal- — Pascal subset used in Brinch Hansen on Pascal Compilers, P.
1451. Pascal-2 — [?]
1452. Pascal-80 — A successor of Platon. Developed at RC International for
1453. Pascal+CSP — "Pascal+CSP, Merging Pascal and CSP in a Parallel Processing
1454. Pascal-F — Pascal extended to include fixed-point arithmetic. E. Nelson,
1455. Pascal-FC — Derived from Pascal-S, provides several types of concurrency:
1456. Pascal/L — A SIMD parallel extension of Pascal. "Implementation of an
1457. Pascal-Linda — Ian Flockhart, U Edinburgh, 1991. Under development.
1458. Pascal-m — "Pascal-m: A Language for Loosely Coupled Distributed Systems",
1459. Pascal-P — Variant of Pascal used by the UCSD p-system environment.
1460. Pascal Plus — Jim Welsh & D. Bustard, Queens U, Belfast. Pascal with
1461. Pascal/R — Pascal with relational database constructs added. The first
1462. Pascal-S — Simplified Pascal. June, 1975. A strict subset of Pascal,
1463. Pascal-SC — ESPRIT DIAMOND Project. An extension of Pascal for numerical
1464. Pasqual — "Pasqual: A Proposed Generalization of Pascal", R.D. Tennent,
1465. PASSIM — Simulation language based on Pascal. "PASSIM: A Discrete-Event
1466. PASRO — PAScal for RObots. "PASRO — Pascal for Robots", C. Blume et al,
1467. PAT —
1468. Path Pascal — Parallel extension of Pascal. Processes have shared access
1469. PC — Parallel C. U Houston. Extensions to C providing a shared memory
1470. pC++ — Data parallel extension to C++. Classes and methods for managing
1471. PCL —
1472. PCLIPS — Parallel CLIPS — U Lowell. Concurrent independent CLIPS expert
1473. PCN — Program Composition Notation. Specification language for parallelism
1474. P-code — The intermediate code produced by the Pascal-P compiler. Assembly
1475. PC-TILES — A visual language. [?]
1476. PDEL — Partial Differential Equation Language. Preprocessor for PL/I.
1477. PDELAN — Partial Differential Equation LANguage. "An Extension of FORTRAN
1478. PDIL — Agence d'Informatique, France, 1970's. Language for description of
1479. PDL2 — Process Design Language. Developed for the TI ASC computer. "Texas
1480. PDS/MaGen — Problem Descriptor System. Generation of matrices and reports
1481. PEARL —
1482. Pebble — Polymorphic. "A Kernel Language for Abstract Data Types and
1483. Pebbleman — Jul 1978, revised Jan 1979. DoD requirements that led to APSE.
1484. PECOS — Constraint-based language, built on the object-oriented module of
1485. PEEL — Used to implement version of EMACS on PRIME computer. [?]
1486. PEF — PowerPC Executable Format. Binary object code format used by Apple.
1487. PENCIL — Pictorial ENCodIng Language. On-line system to display line
1488. Pepper — Chris Dollin . Variant of POP-11.
1489. PEPsy — Prolog extended with parallel modules within which explicit OR-
1490. Perl — Practical Extraction and Report Language. Larry Wall
1491. PFL —
1492. Pfortran — Parallel Fortran. U Houston. Extensions to Fortran providing a
1493. pH — Parallel Haskell. A parallel variant of Haskell incorporating ideas
1494. PHOCUS — Object-oriented Prolog-like language. "PHOCUS: Production Rules,
1495. PIC — Brian Kernighan. Graphics meta-language for textually describing
1496. Pick BASIC — see Data/BASIC.
1497. PICL — Language on Ncube or iPSC machines?
1498. Pictorial Janus — K. Kahn, Xerox. Visual extension of Janus. Requires
1499. pidgen+ — For Apple ][. Published in DDJ?
1500. PIE — CMU. Similar to Actus.
1501. PIL — Procedure Implementation Language, subsystem of DOCUS. Sammet 1969,
1502. PIL/I — Variant of JOSS. Sammet 1969, p.217.
1503. PILE —
1504. PILOT — Programmed Inquiry Learning Or Teaching. CAI language, many
1505. PINBOL — Decision table language for controlling pinball machines used at
1506. PIRL — Pattern Information Retrieval Language. Language for digraph
1507. PIT — Language for IBM 650. (See IT).
1508. PL-11 — R.D. Russell, CERN, Nov 1971. High-level machine-oriented language
1509. PL360 — Structured assembly language for IBM 360 and 370, with a few high-
1510. PL516 — Similar to PL360. "PL 516, An ALGOL-like Assembly Language for the
1511. PL-6 — PL/I-like system language for the Honeywell OS CP-6.
1512. PL.8 — A systems dialect of PL/I, developed originally for the IBM 801 RISC
1513. Pla — High-level music programming language, written in SAIL. Includes
1514. PLACE — Programming Language for Automatic Checkout Equipment. "The
1515. PLAGO — A translator-interpreter for a PL/I subset. "PLAGO/360 User's
1516. PLAIN — Programming LAnguage for INteraction. Pascal-like, with extensions
1517. PLAN — Assembly language for ICL1900 series machines.
1518. Planet — "An Experiment in Language Design for Distributed Systems", D.
1519. PLANIT — Programming LANguage for Interaction and Teaching. CAI language.
1520. Plankalkul — Konrad Zuse, ca. 1945. The first programming language,
1521. PLANNER — C. Hewitt MIT 1967. A language for writing
1522. PLANS — Programming Language for Allocation and Network Scheduling. A PL/I
1523. PLASMA — PLAnner-like System Modeled on Actors. Carl Hewitt, 1975. The
1524. Plasyd — A structured assemply language, similar to PL360 but with ICL
1525. Platon — Distributed language based on asynchronous message passing.
1526. PLAY — 1977. Language for real-time music synthesis. "An Introduction to
1527. Playground — A visual language for children, developed for Apple's Vivarium
1528. PL/C — Slight subset of PL/I, aimed at student use. "User's Guide to
1529. PL/I — Programming Language I. George Radin, 1964. Originally named NPL.
1530. PL/I SUBSET — Early 70's version of PL/I for minis.
1531. PL/I Subset G — ("General Purpose") The commercial PL/I subset (i.e., what
1532. PL/I-FORMAC — Variant of FORMAC. "The PL/I-FORMAC Interpreter", J.
1533. Plisp — Pattern LISP. 1990. A pattern-matching rewrite-rule language,
1534. PLITS — Programming Language In The Sky. A computational model for
1535. PL/M — Programming Language/Microcomputers. Gary Kildall, MAA (later
1536. PL/MP — C.J. Tan, IBM TJWRC, 1978. A microprogramming language resembling
1537. PL/P — Programming Language, Prime. Russ Barbour, PRIME Computer, late
1538. PL/PROPHET — PL/I-like language for the PROPHET system, used by
1539. PL/S — Programming Language/Systems. IBM late 60's, for the IBM 360 and
1540. PL/Seq — Programming Language for Sequences. A DSP language. "A General
1541. PLZ — Zilog. A high level language for programming microprocessors. A
1542. PLZ/ASM — Similar to PLZ, but with assembler instructions instead of
1543. PLUM — U. Maryland. Compiler for a substantial subset of PL/I for the
1544. Plural EuLisp — EuLisp with parallel extensions. "Collections and Garbage
1545. PLUS — Late 60's. Machine-oriented systems language used internally by
1546. PLUSS — Proposition of a Language Useable for Structured Specifications.
1547. PLZ — [?]
1548. PM — "PM, A System for Polynomial Manipulations", G.E. Collins, CACM
1549. PML — Parallel ML. "Synchronous Operations as First-Class Values", J.H.
1550. PNU-Prolog — A parallel extension of NU-Prolog, implemented as a
1551. POCAL — PETRA Operator's CommAnd Language.
1552. POFAC — A subset of Fortran. Mentioned in Machine Oriented Higher Level
1553. POGO — Early system on G-15. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
1554. Polka — Object orientation plus parallel logic, built on top of Parlog.
1555. Poly —
1556. POLYGOTH — Distributed language integrating classes with a parallel block
1557. Ponder — Jon Fairbairn, . Polymorphic, non-strict
1558. POOL2 — Parallel Object-Oriented Language. Philips Research Labs, 1987.
1559. POOL-I — Latest in the line of POOL languages. "A Parallel Object-Oriented
1560. POOL-T — Object-oriented, concurrent, synchronous. Predecessor of POOL2.
1561. POP-1 — Package for Online Programming. Edinburgh, 1966. First of the POP
1562. POP-2 — Robin POPplestone, Edinburgh, 1967. An innovative language
1563. POP-10 — Julian Davies, 1973. Descendant of POP-2, for the PDP-10. "POP-
1564. Pop-11 — Robin POPplestone, 1975. Originally for the PDP-11. In some
1565. POP-9X — Proposed BSI standard for Pop-11.
1566. POP++ — An object-oriented extension of POPLOG. Available from Integral
1567. POPCORN — AI system built on POP-2. "The POPCORN Reference Manual", S.
1568. Poplar — Morris, 1978. A blend of LISP with SNOBOL4 pattern matching and
1569. POPLER — A PLANNER-type language for the POP-2 environment. "Popler 1.6
1570. POPLOG — U Sussex. Language for the two-stack virtual machine (PVM) which
1571. PopTalk — A commercial object-oriented derivative of POP, used in the
1572. Port — Waterloo Microsystems (now Hayes Canada) ca. 1979. Imperative
1573. Portable Standard Lisp — "The Portable Standard LISP Users Manual", TR-10,
1574. PORTAL — Process-Oriented Real-Time Algorithmic Language. "PORTAL — A
1575. Port Language — "Communicating Parallel Processes", J. Kerridge et al, Soft
1576. POSE — 1967. An early query language. "POSE: A Language for Posing
1577. POSTQUEL — POSTGRES QUERy Language. Language used by the database system
1578. PostScript — J. Warnock et al, Adobe Systems, ca. 1982. Interpretive
1579. POSYBL — PrOgramming SYstem for distriButed appLications. Ioannis
1580. PowerFuL — Combines functional and logic programming, using "angelic
1581. PPL — Polymorphic Programming Language. Harvard U. Interactive and
1582. PPLambda — Essentially the first-order predicate calculus superposed upon
1583. P-Prolog — Parallel logic language. "P-Prolog: A Parallel Logic Language
1584. PRA — PRAgmatics. Language used by COPS for specification of code
1585. pre-cc — PREttier Compiler Compiler.
1586. PREP — PRogrammed Electronics Patterns. Language for designing integrated
1587. PRESTO — Bershad et al, U Washington 1987. A parallel language for shared-
1588. PRINT — PRe-edited INTerpreter. Early math for IBM 705. Sammet 1969,
1589. PRINT I — Early system on IBM 705. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
1590. PRISM — Distributed logic language. "PRISM: A Parallel Inference System
1591. PRL — Proof Refinement Logic. "PRL: Proof Refinement Logic Programmer's
1592. Probe — Object-oriented logic language based on ObjVlisp. "Proposition
1593. PROC — Job control language used in the Pick OS. "Exploring the Pick
1594. PROCOL — J. van den Bos, Erasmus U, Rotterdam. A concurrent object-
1595. PROFILE — Simple language for matching and scoring data. "User's Manual
1596. PROGENY — 1961. Report generator for UNIVAX SS90.
1597. Prograph — Programming in Graphics. Tomasz Pietrzykowski, Technical U,
1598. PROGRES — PROgrammed Graph REwriting Systems. A. Scheurr, Aachen 1991. A
1599. PROJECT — Subsystem of ICES. Sammet 1969, p.616.
1600. Prolog — PROgrammation en LOGique. Alain Colmerauer and Phillipe Roussel,
1601. Prolog-2 — An implementation of Edinburgh Prolog. "An Advanced Logic
1602. Prolog-II — Prolog with two new predicates: 'dif' for coroutines and
1603. Prolog-III — A. Colmerauer, U Aix-Marseille, ca 1984. Marseille Prolog,
1604. Prolog+ — [?]
1605. Prolog++ — Phil Vasey, Logic Programming Associates. Prolog with object-
1606. Prolog-D-Linda — Embeds the Linda parallel paradigm into SISCtus Prolog.
1607. Prolog-Linda —
1608. PROMAL — PROgrammer's Microapplication Language. Systems Management
1609. PROMELA — Language for building finite state machines. [?]
1610. Pronet — "The Design of a Programming Language Based on Connectivity
1611. PROOF/L — Language with implicit parallelism. Functional, object-oriented.
1612. Proposal Writing — Extension of FORTRAN for proposal writing. Sammet 1969,
1613. PROSE —
1614. ProSet — U Essen, 1990. Formerly SETL/E. A derivative of SETL with
1615. PROSPER — "PROSPER: A Language for Specification by Prototyping", J.
1616. ProTalk — Quintus. An object-oriented Prolog.
1617. PROTEUS —
1618. Protosynthex — Query system for English text. Sammet 1969, p.669.
1619. PS 440 — K. Lagally, ca 1974. The system implementation language for the
1620. PS-ALGOL — Persistent Algol. ca 1981, released 1985. A derivative of S-
1621. pSather — Parallel extension of Sather for clustered shared memory model.
1622. PSETL — Parallel SETL — An extension of SETL for operating specification
1623. PSML — Processor System Modeling Language. Simulating computer systems
1624. P-TAC — Parallel Three Address Code. "P-TAC: A Parallel Intermediate
1625. PUB — PUBlishing. 1972. An early text-formatting language for TOPS-10,
1626. PUFFT — "The Purdue University Fast FORTRAN Translator", Saul Rosen et al,
1627. PUMPKIN — "PUMPKIN — (Another) Microprogramming Language", G.R. Lloyd,
1628. PVM — Parallel Virtual Machine. Intermediate language used by the Gambit
1629. Python —
1630. Q — Very high level language based on generalized (lazy) sequences.
1631. QA4 — Question-answering language. A procedural calculus for intuitive
1632. QBE — Query By Example. Moshe Zloof, IBM 1975. A user-friendly query
1633. Qlambda — "Queue-based Multi-processing Lisp", R. Gabriel & J. McCarthy,
1634. QLISP —
1635. QLOG — An integration of logic programming into LISP. "QLOG — The
1636. Q'NIAL — Queen's U, Canada. A portable incremental compiler for NIAL,
1637. QPE — Two-dimensional pictorial query language. "Pictorial Information
1638. Q-systems. A. Colmerauer, 1969. A rewrite system with one-way
1639. Quake — Stephen Harrison, DEC SRC, 1993. A string-oriented language
1640. QUEASY — Early system on IBM 701. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
1641. QUEL — Query language used by the database management system INGRES.
1642. Quest —
1643. QUICK — Early system on IBM 701. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
1644. Quicksilver — dBASE-like compiler for MS-DOS from WordTech, Orinda, CA.
1645. QUIKSCRIPT — Simulation language derived from SIMSCRIPT, based on 20-GATE.
1646. QUIKTRAN — FORTRAN-like, interactive with debugging facilities. Sammet
1647. QUIN — Pyle 1965. Interactive language. Sammet 1969, p.691.
1648. Quintec-Objects — Based on Quintec (not Quintus) Prolog. British.
1649. Quty — Functional plus logic. "Quty: A Functional Language Based on
1650. QX — (meaning "OK", from E.E. Smith SF books). Richard Gillmann, SDC,
1651. Raddle — "On the Design of Large Distributed Systems", I.R. Forman, Proc
1652. RAIL — Automatix. High-level language for industrial robots.
1653. RAISE — See RSL.
1654. RAL — Expert system.
1655. RAMIS II — Rapid Access Management Information System. Database system.
1656. Rapidwrite — Method for translating set of abbreviations into the much more
1657. RAPT — "An Interpreter for a Language for Describing Assemblies", R.J.
1658. RASP — "RASP — A Language with Operations on Fuzzy Sets", D.D. Djakovic,
1659. RATEL — Raytheon Automatic Test Equipment Language. For analog and digital
1660. RATFIV — Successor to RATFOR.
1661. RATFOR — RATional FORTRAN. Kernighan. FORTRAN preprocessor to allow
1662. RAWOOP-SNAP — Early system on IBM 1103 or 1103A. Listed in CACM 2(5):16
1663. R:BASE — MS-DOS 4GL from Microrim. Based on Minicomputer DBMS RIM. Was
1664. RBASIC — Database language for Revelation, by Cosmos Inc. Combines
1665. RBCSP — Roper & Barter's CSP. "A Communicating Sequential Process Language
1666. rc —
1667. RCC — An extensible language. [?]
1668. RCL — Reduced Control Language. A simplified job control language for
1669. RDL — Requirements and Development Language. "RDL: A Language for Software
1670. Real-Time Euclid — Real-time language, restriction to time-bounded
1671. Real-Time Mentat — An extension of C++. "Real-Time Mentat: A Data-Driven
1672. Real-Time Pascal — Later name for Pascal-80 by RC Intl, Denmark.
1673. REC — Regular Expression Converter. See CONVERT.
1674. Recital — dBASE-like language/DBMS from Recital Corp. Versions include
1675. RECOL — REtrieval COmmand Language. CACM 6(3):117-122 (Mar 1963).
1676. Red — (Also "REDL"). Intermetrics. A language proposed to meet the
1677. REDCODE — Proposed as a language for "battle programs" in corewars. (See
1678. RediLisp — R.M. Keller, U Utah. Dialect of Lisp used on the Rediflow
1679. REDUCE — Anthony Hearn, 1963. Symbolic math, ALGOL-like syntax, written in
1680. Refal — Recursive Functions Algorithmic Language. V. Turchin, Moscow ca
1681. REF-ARF — "REF-ARF: A System for Solving Problems Stated as Procedures",
1682. Refine — Cordell Green et al, Stanford U. High-level wide-spectrum
1683. Refined C (RC) — An extension of C to directly specify data access rights
1684. Refined Fortran (RF) — Similar to Refined C. Research implementations
1685. REG-SYMBOLIC — Early system on IBM 704. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
1686. REGTRAL — [?] Mentioned in Attribute Grammars, LNCS 323, p.108.
1687. Relational Language. Clark & Gregory. First parallel logic language to
1688. RELATIVE — Early system on IBM 650. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
1689. RELCODE — Early system on UNIVAC I or II. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May
1690. REL English — Rapidly Extensible Language, English. A formal language
1691. RenderMan Shading Language. "The RenderMan Companion", S. Upstill, A-W
1692. RENDEZVOUS — Query language, close to natural English. "Seven Steps to
1693. REPL — Restricted EPL. A subset of EPL (the efficient part) used to write
1694. Required-COBOL — 1961. Minimal subset of COBOL. Later dropped entirely.
1695. Retrieve — Tymshare Corp, 1960's. Query language, inspired JPLDIS which
1696. Revised ALGOL 60 — Alternate name for ALGOL 60 Revised. Sammet 1969,
1697. REXX — Restructured EXtended eXecutor. M. Cowlishaw, IBM ca. 1979.
1698. Rez — MacIntosh resource language.
1699. RIGAL — Language for compiler writing. Data strucures are atoms,
1700. Rigel — Database language? Based on Pascal. Listed by M.P. Atkinson &
1701. RIPscrip — Remote Imaging Protocol scripts. Telegrafix Inc. A
1702. RLL — Representation Language Language. A frame language. "A
1703. RMAG — Recursive Macro Actuated Generator. Robert A. Magnuson, NIH ca
1704. ROADS — Subsystem of ICES. Sammet 1969, p.616.
1705. ROBEX — ROBot EXapt. Aachen Tech College. Based on EXAPT. Version:
1706. Robotalk — A Forth-based assembly/control language with low level
1707. Roff — Text formatting language/interpreter associated with Unix. (See
1708. ROME — Experimental object-oriented language. "The Point of View Notion
1709. Rossette — MCC. Concurrent object-oriented language.
1710. RPG — Report Program Generator. IBM 1965. For easy production of
1711. RPL-1 — Data reduction language. Proc SJCC 30:571-575, AFIPS (Spring
1712. RPL — Reverse Polish LISP. Language used by HP-28 and HP-48 calculators.
1713. RPT — Unify. Report Writer Language.
1714. RSL — RAISE Specification Language. (RAISE=Rigorous Approach to Industrial
1715. RTC++ — Real-time extension of C++. "Object-Oriented Real-Time Language
1716. RT-CDL — Real-Time Common Design Language. Real-time language for the
1717. RTL — Register Transfer Language. Chris Fraser & J.
1718. RTL/1 — Real Time Language. Barnes, ICI 1971. A real-time language, the
1719. RTL/2 — John Barnes et al, Imperical Chemical Industries, 1972. Small
1720. Ruby —
1721. RUFL — Rhodes University Functional Language. Rhodes U, Grahamstown, South
1722. RUNCIBLE — Early system for math on IBM 650. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May
1723. RUNOFF — An early text-formatting language supported under TOPS-10 on the
1724. RUSH —
1725. Russell — (named for the British mathematician Bertrand Russell (1872-
1726. RUTH — Harrison . Real-time language based
1727. S — AT&T. Statistical analysis. "S: An Interactive Environment for Data
1728. S* — Dasgupta, Simon Fraser U, 1978. A microprogramming language schema,
1729. S*A — Dasgupta, 1981. A high-level architecture description language,
1730. S*M — A nonprocedural hardware description language. "S*M, An Axiomatic,
1731. S3 — ALGOL-like system language for the ICL 2900 computer.
1732. SAAL — Used on the Univac 1005 in the 1960's by the US Army Material
1733. SAC — Early system on Datatron 200 series. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May
1734. SAC-1 — G.E. Collins. Early symbolic math system, written in FORTRAN.
1735. SAC2 — Symbolic math system, compiles to FORTRAN or Common LISP.
1736. SAD SAM — Query language by Lindsay. Sammet 1969, p.669.
1737. SAFARI — Online text editing system by MITRE. Sammet 1969, p.685.
1738. Safe Ada — A subset of Ada for writing safety-critical software. "Safe Ada
1739. SAIL —
1740. SAINT — Symbolic Automatic INTegrator. J. Slagle, MIT 1961. Written in
1741. SAL —
1742. SALEM — "SALEM — A Programming System for the Simulation of Systems
1743. S-Algol — Orthogonal data structures on Algol-60. "S-Algol Language
1744. SALT —
1745. SAM76 — Claude Kagan. Macro language, a descendant of TRAC. Version for
1746. SAMeDL — SQL Ada Module Description Language. Used to interface Ada
1747. Sandman — DoD requirements that led to APSE.
1748. SAP — Symbolic Assembler Program. IBM 704 assembly language, late 50's.
1749. SARG — Used on the Uvivac 1004 in the 1960's by the US Army Material
1750. SAS — Statistical Analysis System. Statistical and matrix language,
1751. SASL — Saint Andrews Static Language. Turner, 1976. A derivative of ISWIM
1752. SASL+LV — Unifies logic and functional programming. A more complete
1753. SASL-YACC — See yacc.
1754. Sather — ("Say-ther", named for the Sather Tower at UCB, as opposed to the
1755. Sather-K — Karlsruhe Sather. A sublanguage of Sather used for introductory
1756. SCALLOP — Medium-level language for CDC computers, used to bootstrap the
1757. SCAN —
1758. SCEPTRE — Designing and analyzing circuits. "SCEPTRE: A Computer Program
1759. Scheme — (originally "Schemer", by analogy with Planner and Conniver.)
1760. Scheme-Linda — Ulf Dahlen, U Edinburgh, 1990. On the Computing Surface and
1761. School — Smalltalk-like but strongly typed, with separate inheritance
1762. Schoonschip — (Dutch for "beautiful ship") M. Veltman, CERN, 1964.
1763. SCL —
1764. Scode — Internal representation used by the Liar compiler for MIT Scheme.
1765. SCOOP — Structured Concurrent Object-Oriented Prolog. "SCOOP, Structured
1766. SCOOPS — Scheme Object-Oriented Programming System. TI, 1986. Multiple
1767. SCRAP — CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa, late 1970's. Ran on Interdata and
1768. Scratchpad I — Richard Jenks, Barry Trager, Stephen M. Watt & Robert S.
1769. Screamer — An extension of Common Lisp providing nondeterministic
1770. Screenwrite — Simple query language. Honeywell late 70's, Level 6 minis.
1771. Scribe — Brian Reid. A text-formatting language.
1772. SCRIPT —
1773. ScriptX — Kaleida Labs. Object-oriented, dynamic, time-based,
1774. SCROLL — String and Character Recording Oriented Logogrammatic Language.
1775. scsh — An extension language?
1776. SDF — Syntax Definition Formalism. CWI. Language for lexical and
1777. SDL —
1778. 4. Structure Definition Language. Used internally by DEC to define and
1779. 5. System Description Language. language used by the Eiffel/S
1780. SDL 92 — SDL[2] with object-orientation.
1781. SDMS — Query language.
1782. SEAL — Semantics-directed Environment Adaptation Language.
1783. Sed — Stream editor. The input language used by the Unix stream editor.
1784. SEESAW — Early system on IBM 701. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
1785. SEL —
1786. Self — Small, dynamically-typed object-oriented language, based on
1787. list: self-interest@self.stanford.edu
1788. SEM — Semantic specification language for COPS. "Metalanguages of the
1789. Seneca — See Oberon-V
1790. SEPIA — Standard ECRC Prolog Integrating Applications. Prolog with many
1791. Seque — "Seque: A Programming Language for Manipulating Sequences", R.E.
1792. Sequel —
1793. SESL — State and Event Specification Language. [?]
1794. SETL — SET Language. Courant Inst, early 70's. A very high level
1795. SETL2 — SETL with more conventional Ada-like syntax, lexical scoping, full
1796. SETL/E — See ProSet.
1797. SETS — Set Equation Transformation System. Symbolic manipulation of
1798. SEUS — R. Weyrauch et al. Language allowing functions to return multiple
1799. SEXI — String EXpression Interpreter. Early name of SNOBOL.
1800. SFD-ALGOL — System Function Description-ALGOL. Extension of ALGOL for
1801. SFL — System Function Language. Assembly language for the ICL2900. "SFL
1802. SFLV — Unifies logic and functional programming. SASL+LV with unification
1803. SGML — Standard Generalized Markup Language. "SGML — The User's Guide to
1804. sh — (or "Shellish"). S.R. Bourne. Command shell interpreter and script
1805. SHACO — Early system on IBM 701. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
1806. SHADOW — Barnett & Futrelle, 1962. Syntax-directed compiler. Predecessor
1807. Sharp APL — "A Dictionary of the APL Language", K. Iverson, Pub 0402, Sharp
1808. SHEEP — Symbolic math, especially tensor analysis and General Relativity.
1809. SHELL — Early system on Datatron 200 series. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May
1810. Short Code or SHORTCODE — John Mauchly, 1949. Pseudocode interpreter for
1811. Show-And-Tell — Visual dataflow language designed for use by elementary
1812. SICStus Prolog — SICS (Swedish Inst Comp Sci), Box 1263, S-164 28 Kista,
1813. SIFT — SHARE Internal FORTRAN Translator. Translation utility designed for
1814. Sig — Signal Processing, Analysis, and Display program. This is an
1815. SIGLA — SIGma LAnguage. Olivetti. Language for industrial robots.
1816. SIGNAL — Le Guernic et al, INRIA. Synchronous dataflow language. An
1817. SIL —
1818. Silage — Synchronous DSP specification language. "Silage Reference Manual,
1819. SIMAN — SIMulation ANalysis. C. Dennis Pegden, 1983. Language for
1820. SIMCMP — A simple bootstrap language and compiler, used to compile FLUB.
1821. SIML/I — Simulation language, descendant of ASPOL. "The Simulation
1822. Simone — A. Hoare et al. Simulation language based on Pascal.
1823. SIMPAC — Early simulation language with fixed time steps. "Simpac User's
1824. SIMPAS — Event scheduling language, implemented as Pascal preprocessor.
1825. SIMPL —
1826. SIMPLE —
1827. SIMPL/I — Simulation language implemented as a PL/I preprocessor. "SIMPL/I
1828. SIMPL-T — Base language for a family of languages and compilers.
1829. SIMSCRIPT — Harry Markowitz et al, Rand Corp 1963. Implemented as a
1830. SIMULA I — SIMUlation LAnguage. Kristen Nygaard & Ole-Johan Dahl, designed
1831. SIMULA 67 — A general-purpose successor to SIMULA I, in which the
1832. SIMULA — Current version of SIMULA 67. Used as the introductory
1833. Simulating Digital Systems — FORTRAN-like language for describing computer
1834. SINA — "An Implementation of the Object-Oriented Concurrent Programming
1835. SIPLAN — SIte PLANning computer language. Interactive language for space
1836. Siprol — Signal Processing Language. A DSP language. "SIPROL: A High
1837. SIR — Early system on IBM 650. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
1838. Siri — Horn , CMU 1991. Object-oriented
1839. SISAL — Streams and Iteration in a Single Assignment Language. James
1840. SISAL 90 — A SISAL extension with higher order functions, polymorphism.
1841. Sketchpad — I. Sutherland, 1963. Computer-aided design. Constraints using
1842. Skim — Alain Deutsch et al, France. Scheme
1843. SKOL — FORTRAN pre-processor for COS (Cray Operating System).
1844. SL5 — String and list processing language with expression-oriented syntax.
1845. SLAM —
1846. SLANG —
1847. S-Lang — Stack-based postfix language, used in the JED editor.
1848. SLIM — A VLSI language for translating DFA's into circuits. J.L. Hennessy,
1849. SLIP — Symmetric LIst Processsor. J. Weizenbaum, early-60's. Language for
1850. SLIPS — "An Interpreter for SLIPS — An Applicative Language Based on
1851. SLLIC — Intermediate language developed at HP. An infinite-register
1852. Sloop — "Parallel Programming in a Virtual Object Space", S. Lucco, SIGPLAN
1853. SMALGOL — SMall ALGOL. Subset of ALGOL 60. "SMALGOL-61", G.A. Bachelor et
1854. SMALL —
1855. Small-C — A subset of C. Compiler source in C producing 8080 code in Dr
1856. Smalltalk — Software Concepts Group, Xerox PARC, led by Alan Kay, early
1857. Smalltalk-80 — "Smalltalk-80: The Language and Its Implementation" ("The
1858. SmalltalkAgents — QKS. Smalltalk with closures. [?]
1859. Smalltalk DB — Formerly OPAL. Language of the object-oriented database
1860. Smalltalk/V — First widely available version of Smalltalk, for PC, Mac.
1861. SmallVDM — "SmallVDM: An Environment for Formal Specification and
1862. SmallWorld — Object-oriented language. "SW 2 — An Object-based Programming
1863. SMART — For MS-DOS?
1864. SMIL — Machine language for a Swedish computer.
1865. SML —
1866. SML# — An extension of SML/NJ with polymorphic field selection and
1867. SML/NJ — Standard ML of New Jersey. An implementation of SML by Andrew
1868. SMoLCS — Specification metalanguage used for a formal definition of Ada.
1869. SMP — Steven Wolfram's earlier symbol manipulation program, before he
1870. SNAP —
1871. SNOBOL — StriNg Oriented symBOlic Language. David Farber, Ralph Griswold &
1872. SNOBOL2 — Brief existence, featured built-in functions, but not programmer-
1873. SNOBOL3 — 1965. SNOBOL with user-defined functions. SNOBOL 6.3 compiler
1874. SNOBOL4 — Griswold et al, 1967. Quite distinct from its predecessors.
1875. SITBOL — "SITBOL Version 3.0", J.F. Gimpel, TRS4D30b, Bell Labs 1973.
1876. SNOOPS — Craske, 1988. An extension of SCOOPS with meta-objects that can
1877. SO 2 — Early system on IBM 701. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
1878. SOAP — Symbolic Optimal Assembly Program. IBM 650 assembly language.
1879. SOAR — State, Operator And Result. A. Newell, early 80's. A general
1880. SOCRATIC — [Not a language?] Bolt, Beranek & Newman. Early interactive
1881. SODA — Symbolic Optimum DEUCE Assembly Program. Symbolic assembler for a
1882. SODAS — D.L. Parnas & J.A. Darringer. Proc FJCC 31:449-474, AFIPS (Fall
1883. SOHIO — Early system on IBM 705. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
1884. SOL —
1885. SOLO — Name inspired by SOL[3] + LOGO. A variant of LOGO with primitives
1886. Solve — Parallel object-oriented language. "Message Pattern
1887. SP — Simplicity and Power. Prolog-like. "Simplicity and Power —
1888. SPADE — Specification Processing And Dependency Extraction. Specification
1889. SPAR — Early system on Datatron 200 series. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May
1890. SPARK — Southampton U and Program Validation, Ltd. An annotated subset of
1891. SPARKS — FORTRAN superset, used in Fundamentals of Data Structures, E.
1892. Speakeasy — Simple array-oriented language with numerical integration and
1893. Spec — Specification language. Expresses black-box interface
1894. SPECIAL — SRI specification language. [HDM?] "SPECIAL — A Specification
1895. SPECOL — "SPECOL — A Computer Enquiry Language for the Non-Programmer",
1896. SPEED — Early system on LGP-30. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
1897. Speedcoding — John Backus, 1953. A pseudocode interpreter for math on IBM
1898. Speedcoding 3 — Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
1899. SPEEDEX — Early system on IBM 701. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
1900. SP/k — Subset PL/I, k=1..8. A series of PL/I subsets, simplified for
1901. SPG — System Program Generator. A compiler-writing language. "A System
1902. SPIT — Language for IBM 650. (See IT).
1903. SPITBOL — SPeedy ImplemenTation of snoBOL. "Macro SPITBOL — A SNOBOL4
1904. SPL —
1905. SPLash! —
1906. SPL/I — Signal Processing Language I. Intermetrics. General language
1907. SPLINTER — PL/I interpreter with debugging features. Sammet 1969, p.600.
1908. Split-C — Parallel extension of C for distributed memory multiprocessors.
1909. SPLX — Specification Language for Parallel cross-product of processes and
1910. SPM — Sequential Parlog Machine. Language of a virtual machine for Parlog
1911. Spool — Object-oriented logic. "An Experience with a Prolog Based
1912. SPRING — String PRocessING language. "From SPRING to SUMMER: Design,
1913. SPRINT — List processing language involving stack operations. "SPRINT — A
1914. SPS — Symbolic Programming System. Assembly language for IBM 1620.
1915. SPSS — Statistical Programs for the Social Sciences. "SPSS X User's
1916. SPUR — Early system on IBM 650. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
1917. Squiggol — See BMF.
1918. SQL — Structured Query Language. IBM, 1970's, for use in System R. The de
1919. SQL Module Language. Used to interface other languages (Ada, C, COBOL,
1920. Square — Query language, precursor to SQL. "Specifying Queries as
1921. Squeak — "Squeak: A Language for Communicating with Mice", L. Cardelli et
1922. SR — Synchronizing Resources. A language for concurrent programming. A
1923. SRC Modula-3 — From DEC/SRC, Palo Alto, CA. "Modula-3 Report (revised)"
1924. SRDL — Small algebraic specification language, allows distfix operators.
1925. Srl —
1926. SSL —
1927. STAB-11 — "The Translation and Interpretation of STAB-11", A.J.T. Colin et
1928. STAC — Storage Allocation and Coding Program. Symbolic macro-assembler for
1929. STAGE2 — A macro language. "The Mobile Programming System: STAGE2", W. M.
1930. Standard Lisp — A. Hearn. Subset of Lisp 1.5 developed primarily for
1931. Standard ML — See SML.
1932. STAR 0 — Early system on Datatron 200 series. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May
1933. StarLISP — See *LISP.
1934. StarMOD — See *MOD.
1935. Starset — Portable storage/retrieval language for distributed databases.
1936. Statemate — Language for building finite state machines. [?]
1937. Steelman — DoD, June 1978. Fifth and last of the series of DoD
1938. STENSOR — L. Hornfeldt, Stockholm, mid-80's. Symbolic math, especially
1939. Sticks&Stones — Hardware description language. Functional, polymorphic,
1940. STIL — STatistical Interpretive Language. "STIL User's Manual", C.F.
1941. STING — A parallel dialect of Scheme intended to serve as a high-level
1942. STOIC — STring Oriented Interactive Compiler. Smithsonian Astrophysical
1943. Stoneman — HOLWG, DoD, Feb 1980. DoD requirements that led to APSE.
1944. STP4 — Statistical language.
1945. Strand —
1946. Strawman — HOLWG, DoD, Apr 1975. The first of the series of DoD
1947. STREAM — "STREAM: A Scheme Language for Formally Describing Digital
1948. STRESS — STRuctual Engineering Systems Solver. Structural analysis
1949. STROBES — Shared Time Repair of Big Electronic Systems. Computer testing.
1950. STRUDL — STRUctured Design Language. Dynamic and finite-element analysis,
1951. STRUM — Algol-like microprogramming language for the Burroughs D Machine.
1952. STRUM2 — A variant of STRUM used in the V-compiler.
1953. STSC APL — Implementation of APL by Scientific Time-Sharing Corp.
1954. STUDENT — D.G. Bobrow 1964. Early query system. Sammet 1969, p.664.
1955. Student PL/I — A translator-intepreter for a PL/I subset derived from
1956. STUDIO — "STUDIO — A Modular, Compiled, Actor-Oriented Language, Based Upon
1957. SuccessoR — Language for distributed computing derived from SR.
1958. Sue — System language, used to write an OS for the IBM 360. Cross between
1959. SUGAR — Westfield College, U London. Simple lazy functional language used
1960. SUIF — Stanford University Intermediate Format. Register-oriented
1961. SUILVEN — A microprogramming language. "Towards Machine-Independent
1962. SUMMER — Klint & Sint, CWI late 70's. String manipulation and pattern
1963. SUMMER SESSION — Early system on MIT's Whirlwind. Listed in CACM 2(5):16
1964. SUPER — Successor to LOGLISP, based on LNF. "New Generation Knowledge
1965. SUPERMAC — General-purpose macro language, embeddable in existing languages
1966. Super Pascal — Pascal variant used in Data Structures and Algorithms, A.
1967. SuperTalk — Silicon Beach Software. A superset of HyperTalk used in
1968. Sure — Bharat Jayaraman. "Towards a Broader Basis for Logic Programming",
1969. SURGE — Sorter, Updater, Report Generator, Etc. IBM 704, 1959. Sammet
1970. SweetLambda — Sugared lambda-calculus?
1971. SYDEL — Jan Garwick, ca 1974. System language, fully typed, with inline
1972. SYGMA — Novosibirsk. For the BESM-6, M-220 and Minsk-22. "SYGMA, A
1973. Sylvan — [Distributed language?]
1974. SYMBAL — SYMbolic ALgebra. Max Engeli, late 60's. Symbolic math language
1975. SymbMath — Small symbolic math package for MS-DOS. Has the ability to
1976. SYMBOLANG — Lapidus & Goldstein, 1965. Symbol manipulating FORTRAN
1977. SYMBOLIC ASSEMBLY — Early system on IBM 705. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May
1978. Symbolic Mathematical Laboratory — On-line system under CTSS for symbolic
1979. Symmetric LISP — A parallel LISP in which environments are first-class
1980. SYMPL — SYsteMs Programming Language. CDC. A derivative of Jovial.
1981. SYN — Syntactic specification language for COPS. "Metalanguages of the
1982. Synchronous C++ — Ecole Polytechnic Federale de Lausanne.
1983. SYSLISP — System language used in the implementation of Portable Standard
1984. T —
1985. TABLET — Query language. "Human Factor Comparison of a Procedural and a
1986. TABSOL — T.F. Kavanaugh. Early system oriented language. Proc FJCC
1987. TAC — Translator Assembler-Compiler. For Philco 2000.
1988. TACL — Tandem Advanced Command Language. Tandem, about 1987. The shell
1989. TACPOL — PL/I-like language used by US Army for command and control.
1990. TAL — Tandem Application Language. A cross between C and Pascal. Primary
1991. TALE — Typed Applicative Language Experiment. M. van Leeuwen. Lazy,
1992. TALL — TAC List Language. "TALL — A List Processor for the Philco 2000",
1993. TAO —
1994. TARTAN — A simpler proposed language to meet the Ironman requirements.
1995. TASM — Turbo Assembler. MS-DOS assembler from Borland.
1996. TASS — Template ASSembly language. Intermediate language produced by the
1997. TAWK — Tiny AWK.
1998. Taxis — "A Language Facility for Designing Database-Intensive
1999. TBIL — Tiny Basic Interpreter Language. Inner interpreter of Tom Pittman's
2000. Tbl —
2001. Tcl —
2002. Tcode — Intermediate language used by the Spineless Tagless G-machine (an
2003. TCOL — CMU. Tree-based intermediate representation produced by the PQCC
2004. TCOL.Ada — CMU, 1980. An intermediate representation for Ada, was merged
2005. tcsh — Command language for Unix, a dialect of csh.
2006. Tcsim — Time (Complex) Simulator. Complex arithmetic version of Tsim.
2007. TDF — Intermediate language, a close relative of ANDF. A TDF program is an
2008. TDFL — Dataflow language. "TDFL: A Task-Level Dataflow Language", P.
2009. TECO — Text Editor and COrrector. (Originally "Tape Editor and
2010. TELCOMP — Variant of JOSS. Sammet 1969, p.217.
2011. Telescript — General Magic. [?]
2012. Telon — by Panasophic [?]
2013. TELOS —
2014. TELSIM — Busch, ca 1966. Digital simulation. Sammet 1969, p.627.
2015. TempLog — A clausal subset of first-order temporal logic, with discrete
2016. TEMPO — Simple syntax and semantics. Designed for teaching semantic and
2017. Tempura — Language based on temporal logic. "Executing Temporal Logic
2018. Ten15 — A universal intermediate language, redecessor to TDF. Polymorphic?
2019. TERMAC — Interactive matrix language. "Users Guide to TERMAC", J.S. Miller
2020. Terse — Language for decryption of hardware logic. "Hardware Logic
2021. TeX — Donald Knuth, 1978. Language for formatting and typesetting text,
2022. TFDL — "TFDL : A Task-level Dataflow Language", P.A. Suhler et al, J
2023. TGS-II — Translator Generator System. Contained TRANDIR. Sammet 1969,
2024. THEO — Frame language. "Theo: A Framework for Self-Improving Systems",
2025. Theseus — Based on Euclid, never implemented. "Theseus — A Programming
2026. ThingLab — Simulation system written in Smalltalk-80. Solves constraints
2027. Tinman — HOLWG, DoD, Jan 1976. Third of the series of DoD requirements
2028. tinman+ — Macro language for Apple ][? Published in DDJ?
2029. TINT — Interpreted version of JOVIAL. Sammet 1969, p.528.
2030. Tiny — Concurrency through message-passing to named message queues.
2031. TIP — Texas Instruments Pascal.
2032. TIPL
2033. TK!Solver — Software Arts 1983. Numerical constraint-oriented language.
2034. TL0 — Thread Language Zero. The instruction set of the TAM (Threaded
2035. TL1 — Transaction Language 1. Bellcore. A subset of CCITT's MML with
2036. TL/I — An intermediate language for Turing machines. "Examples of Formal
2037. TMDL — Target-Machine Description Language. Machine-description language
2038. TMG — TransMoGrifier. Early language for writing recursive descent
2039. TOK — Referred to in Ursula K. LeGuin's "Always Coming Home." Seems to be
2040. Toronto Euclid — The standard dialect of Euclid, as compared to Ottawa
2041. TPL —
2042. TPS — Tree Pruning System. "An Adaptive Tree Pruning System: A Language
2043. TPU — Text Processing Utility. DEC. Language for creation of text-
2044. TRAC — Text Reckoning And Compiling. Calvin N. Mooers and Peter Deutsch
2045. Trafola-H — A specification language for program transformations.
2046. Traits — Early object-oriented language. Supported multiple inheritance
2047. TRANDIR — TRANslation DIRector. A language for syntax-directed compiling.
2048. TRANQUIL — 1966. ALGOL-like language with sets and other extensions, for
2049. TRANS — TRAffic Network Simulation Language. "A Model for Traffic
2050. TRANS-USE — Early system on IBM 1103 or 1103A. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May
2051. TRANSCODE — Early system on Ferut computer. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May
2052. TRANSIT — Subsystem of ICES. Sammet 1969, p.616.
2053. TRANSLANG — A microassembly language for the Burroughs D Machine.
2054. TREET — E.C. Haines, 1964. An experimental variant of LISP1.5, implemented
2055. TREETRAN — FORTRAN IV subroutine package for tree manipulation.
2056. Trellis — (formerly named OWL). DEC. Object-oriented, with static type-
2057. TRIGMAN — Symbolic math, especially Celestial Mechanics.
2058. Trilogy — Paul Voda , UBC, 1988. Logic programming
2059. TRIX — Language for a family of line-oriented text editors used on CDC 7600
2060. Troff — Text formatting language/interpreter, a variant of Unix roff. (See
2061. TROLL — Array language for continuous simulation, econometric modeling,
2062. True BASIC — John Kemeny & Thomas E. Kurtz. A compiled BASIC requiring no
2063. TS — Typed Smalltalk. Ralph Johnson, U Illinois
2064. Tsim — Time Simulator. Stack-based simulation language. ZOLA
2065. TSL-1 — Task Sequencing Language. Language for specifying sequences of
2066. Tui — Functional. "Tui Language Manual", B. Boutel, TR CSD-8-021, Victoria
2067. Tuki — An intermediate code for functional languages. "Another
2068. TUPLE — Toyohashi University Parallel Lisp Environment. A parallel Lisp
2069. Tuple Space Smalltalk — "Using Tuple Space Communication in Distributed
2070. Turbo Pascal — Borland Intl's Pascal. Perhaps the first integrated
2071. Turbo Prolog — 1986. A Prolog-like language with strong typing and user-
2072. Turing — R.C. Holt & J.R. Cordy
2073. Turing Plus — Systems programming language, a concurrent descendant of
2074. Turingol — D. Knuth. High-level language for programming Turing machines?
2075. TUTOR — Scripting language on PLATO systems from CDC. "The TUTOR
2076. Twentel — Functional. "The TWENTEL System (Version 1).", H. Kroeze, CS
2077. TWIG — Tree-Walking Instruction Generator. A code-generator language.
2078. TXL — Tree Transformation Language. J.R. Cordy et al, Queens U, Canada,
2079. TYPOL — A specialized logic programming language. "TYPOL: A Formalism to
2080. UAN — User Action Notation. VPI. A notation for representation of
2081. UBASIC — Y. Kida . Extension of BASIC oriented
2082. uC++ — Micro-C++. U Waterloo. A concurrent extension of C++ with
2083. UCSD Pascal — see Pascal-P.
2084. U-Code — Universal Pascal Code. Intermediate language, a generalization of
2085. UDL/I — Unified Design Language for Integrated circuits. 1991. A hardware
2086. UHELP — Linear programming. "UHELP User's Manual", D. Singh, Indus Eng
2087. UGLIAC — Early system on Datatron 200 series. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May
2088. UHELP — Mathematical language, listed [?] 1976.
2089. UIL — User Interface Language? Distributed with Motif.
2090. ULP — Small structured language for use in microprocessors. "User's Guide
2091. uML — Micro ML. An interpreter for a subset of SML that runs on MS-DOS.
2092. UNBASIC — Eric S. Raymond, 1981-1982. An extension to IBM BASIC, adding
2093. UNCOL — UNiversal Computer Oriented Language. A universal intermediate
2094. UNICODE — Pre-FORTRAN on the IBM 1103, similar to MATH-MATIC. Sammet 1969,
2095. UNIFORM — An intermediate language developed for reverse engineering both
2096. UNIQUE — A portable job control language, used. "The UNIQUE Command
2097. UNISAP — Early system on UNIVAC I or II. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May
2098. UNITY — A high-level parallel language. "Parallel Program Design", K.M.
2099. Uranus — Hideyuki Nakashima , 1993. A logic-based
2100. USE — Early system on IBM 1103 or 1103A. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May
2101. USL —
2102. USSA — B. Burshteyn, Pyramid, 1992. Object-oriented state language.
2103. utility-coder — Data manipulation and report generation. "User's Manual
2104. UTOPIST — E. Tyugu, Acad Sci Estonia, Tallinn, early 1980's. Specification
2105. V — Wide-spectrum language used in the knowledge-based environment CHI.
2106. VAL —
2107. Valid — Dataflow language. "A List-Processing-Oriented Data Flow Machine
2108. VCODE —
2109. VDM++ — Object-oriented extension of VDM-SL. "Object-Oriented
2110. VDM-SL — Vienna Development Method Specification Language. (Also known as
2111. Vector C — CMU? Variant of C similar to ACTUS.
2112. VECTRAN — FORTRAN with array extensions. "The VECTRAN Language: An
2113. Verdi — (named for the Italian composer Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901))
2114. VEL — See LISP70.
2115. Verilog — Phil Moorby, Gateway Design Information, 1983. A hardware
2116. VGQF — Query language. [?]
2117. VHDL — VHSIC Hardware Description Language. (VHSIC = Very High Speed
2118. Vienna Definition Language — IBM Vienna Labs. A language for formal
2119. Vienna Fortran — Hans Zima , U Vienna. Data-
2120. Views — A Smalltalk extension for computer algebra. "An Object Oriented
2121. VIF — VHDL Interface Format. Intermediate language used by the Vantage
2122. Viron — "Five Paradigm Shifts in Programming Language Design and Their
2123. VITAL — Semantics language using FSL. Mondshein, 1967. Sammet 1969,
2124. VIVID — Numerical constraint-oriented language. "VIVID: The Kernel of a
2125. viz — Visual language for specification and programming. "viz: A Visual
2126. Vlisp — Patrick Greussay ca 1973. A Lisp dialect with a
2127. VML — VODAK Model Language. Language for extensible object-oriented
2128. VMPL — A microprogramming language with PL/I-like syntax, for an abstract
2129. VPL — Dataflow language for interactive image processing. "VPL: An Active,
2130. VSP — Very Simple Prolog+. [?]
2131. VULCAN —
2132. WAFL — WArwick Functional Language. Warwick U, England. LISP-like.
2133. WAM — Intermediate language for compiled Prolog, used by the Warren
2134. WATBOL — WATerloo COBOL, for MVS.
2135. WATFIV — WATerloo Fortran IV. U Waterloo, Canada. Student-friendly
2136. WATFOR — WATerloo FORtran. U Waterloo, Canada. Student-friendly variant
2137. WAVE — Robotics language. "WAVE: A Model-Based Language for Manipulator
2138. WEB — Knuth's self-documenting brand of programming, with algorithms and
2139. WFL — Work Flow Language. Burroughs, ca 1973. A job control language for
2140. Wisp — "An Experiment with a Self-Compiling Compiler for a Simple List-
2141. Wizard — Lehigh U, ca 1975. [?]
2142. Woodenman — HOLWG, DoD, 1975. Second of the series of DoD requirements
2143. WOOL — Window Object Oriented Language. Colas Nahaboo
2144. WPL+ — Word-oriented language internal to PRODOS Applewriter 2.1.
2145. WPOP — WonderPop. Robert Rae , Edinburgh 1976. An
2146. WRITEACOURSE — CAI language, for IBM 360. "WRITEACOURSE: An Educational
2147. WSFN — Which Stands For Nothing. Atari 1983. Beginner's language with
2148. WSL — Waterloo Systems Language. A C-like systems programming language.
2149. X-1 — Early system on UNIVAC I or II. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
2150. Xbase — Generic term for the dBASE family of languages. Coined in response
2151. XBASIC — eXtended BASIC. 1972. An extension of BASIC, including matrix
2152. XC — Declarative extension of C++. "XC — A Language for Embedded Rule
2153. XDL — An object-oriented extension to CCITT's SDL[2]. "XDL: An Object-
2154. Xfun — S. Dalmas , INRIA, 1991. A cross between
2155. Xi — VLSI design language. "The Circuit Design Language Xi", S.I. Feldman,
2156. XICS — Xerox. Page description language.
2157. XL — A tuple language used as the intermediate form in the code generator
2158. XLISP — eXperimental LISP. David Betz . LISP variant
2159. XLISP-PLUS — An extension of XLISP used in the WINTERP OSF/Motif Widget
2160. XNF — Hardware description language?
2161. XPC — eXplicitly Parallel C. Dialect of Parallel C which is mode
2162. XPL — Stanford, 1967-69. Small dialect of PL/I used for compiler writing.
2163. XPOP — Extensible macro assembly language with user-redefinable grammar,
2164. XScheme — David Betz. Scheme with object-oriented extensions. Source in
2165. XTRAN — FORTRAN-like, interactive. [?]
2166. Y — General purpose language syntactically like RATFOR, semantically like
2167. Yaa — Yet Another Assembler — Macro assembler for GCOS 8 and Mark III on
2168. yacc — Yet Another Compiler Compiler. Language used by the Yacc LALR
2169. YALLL — Yet Another Low Level Language. Patterson et al, UC Berkeley,
2170. YAPS — Yet Another Production System? College Park Software. Commercial
2171. YASOS — Yet Another Scheme Object System.
2172. Yay — Yet Another Yacc — An extension of Yacc with LALR(2) parsing.
2173. Yellow — SRI. A language proposed to meet the Ironman requirements which
2174. Yerk — (named for Yerkes Observatory) A public domain reincarnation of
2175. YLISP — Hewlett-Packard. A variant of Xlisp for the HP-95LX palmtop.
2176. Z —
2177. Z++ — Object-oriented extension of Z. "Z++, an Object-Oriented Extension
2178. ZAP — Language for expressing transformational developments. "A System for
2179. Zed — 1978. Software Portability Group, U Waterloo. Eh, with types added.
2180. ZENO — U Rochester 1978. Euclid with asynchronous message-passing.
2181. ZERO — Object oriented extension of Z. "Object Orientation in Z", S.
2182. ZEST — Object oriented extension of Z. "Object Orientation in Z", S.
2183. ZetaLisp — Maclisp dialect used on the LISP Machine. The many extensions
2184. ZIL — Zork Implementation Language. Language used by Infocom's Interactive
2185. Zipcode — [?] Parallel language at Lawrence Livermore?
2186. zsh — Sh with list processing and database enhancements.
2187. ZOPL — Geac. [?] A low-level Pascal?
2188. ZUG — Geac. [?] A low-level Awk?
2189. Zuse — (named for Konrad Zuse, the designer of the first modern programming
icq# 348-436-436 http://rsdn.org/File/44626/super_smilies012.gif Играет silent
Слова, пустые слова, подумал Стормгрен. Слова, за которые прежде люди дрались и умирали, но никогда больше не станут за них ни умирать, ни драться. И от этого мир станет лучше.
 
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